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Arduino – All LEDStrip effects in one (NeoPixel and FastLED)

Arduino – All LEDStrip effects in one (NeoPixel and FastLED)
   5

If you’ve read the article I wrote a while ago “LEDStrip effects for NeoPixel and FastLED“, then you might have noticed quite a few requests to combine all these effects in one single sketch.

I have seen some users come up with some nice examples, but the challenge remained (for me): how do I instantly toggle from effect to another?

Well, today I’ll have such a sketch available for you; it allows you toggle between effects with a simple switch.




Overview

Framework – NeoPixel or FastLED

Well, I have to admit that I have become a FastLED fan – it’s become much more mature and advanced than NeoPixel. However, as with the original article, I wanted this to work for both. FastLED might be more advanced, but NeoPixel takes up less memory. This way you have a choice – it’s up to you. With the Arduino Uno R3 though, this works great with FastLED.

I do recommend reading the original article “LEDStrip effects for NeoPixel and FastLED“, but it is not required since I will be posting the full code for both libraries.

Installing FastLED or NeoPixel

The Arduino IDE has come a long way since I’ve written the original article, and installing a library has become much easier.

The Arduino IDE can be dowloaded from their website for free – I have never used their online IDE, so please stick with the regular one that you install on your computer.

After starting the Arduino IDE, which may take a bit, go to the menu and choose “SketchInclude LibraryManage Libraries“.
In the window that pops up, enter either “neopixel” or “fastled” in the filter field, and press ENTER for the library you’d like to use. I prefer FastLED, but I leave that choice up to you.

Your selected library will be listed, where you can select a version (I used v3.1.0 of FastLED and v1.1.3 of NeoPixel) and click “Install“.

And that’s all there is to it …

Arduino IDE - Install a Library

Arduino IDE – Install a Library

Download LEDEffect Sketches

At the end I’ll list the full code, but you can save yourself the typing or copy and paste efforts by just downlading them here.

Settings … make sure you set them right! 

Obviously, there are a few settings in the source code you will have to match to your setup.

#define PIN 5
Make sure this number (5) matches the PIN on your Arduino that you’re used for Din of your LED strip – this could for example by 6.

#define NUM_LEDS 60
Make sure this number (60) matches the LED count of your LED strip(s).

For FastLED, make sure the “FastLED.addLeds” function is set correctly for your LED strip – I’ve used a WS2811/WS218 LED stip – and the correct color order (RGB vs GRB)!
For NeoPixel, make sure the “Adafruit_NeoPixel strip” line matches your hardware – again: I used a WS2811/WS2812 – and the correct colors (NEO_RGB in this case).

Note :
The use of PIN 2 for the button is a requirement since it allows the button to interrupt your code. Pin 3 will work as well – just remember to chaneg the #define BUTTON 2 to #define BUTTON 3. This is all set for the Arduino UNO R3. Other Arduino models this might be a different pin.

DOWNLOAD - AllEffects LEDStrip Effect (FastLED) 

Filename: AllEffects_FastLED.ino.zip
Version: 1.0
Size: 4.6 KiB
Date: January 3, 2018
 Download Now 

DOWNLOAD - AllEffects LEDStrip Effect (NeoPixel) 

Filename: AllEffects_NeoPixel.ino.zip
Version: 1.0
Size: 4.6 KiB
Date: January 3, 2018
 Download Now 

LED Hardware Setup

Since we want to be able to toggle effects, we will need to change the hardware a little bit by adding a button.

Note: I’ve used PIN 6 in the drawing but PIN 5 in the code. So please either use PIN 6 (modify the #define PIN 5 line to #define PIN 6) or read the drawing below as PIN 5 (instead of PIN 6) – apologies for the confusion here.

The setup is the same as the original article, I’ve just added a push switch.
This push switch is of the type that makes contact when you push it, but breaks contact once you let it go.

Arduino, LED strip, Switch and Power Supply setup

Arduino, LED strip, Switch and Power Supply setup

Challenges Explained

Most users that tried to combine effects have ran into the same issues. I’ll briefly explain how I resolved them so it may be of use to someone – if you don’t care about the challenges, then feel free to ignore it and test the sketch right away.

Challenge 1 – Endless effects

Some of the effects last for ever – for example the bouncing balls. One of the visitors here, Daniel, pointed me in the right direction on how to address this. I made some improvements so it accommodates multiple bouncing balls.

In short, the bouncing balls kept going forever because of an endless while loop:


...
  while(true) {
  ...
  }
...

For one bouncing ball this could be caught in the if ( ImpactVelocity[i] < 0.01 ) { ... } part, but for multiple balls this became a little more challenging.

The basic solution was to keep track of all balls, to see if they are still finishing their bounce session. If all stopped bouncing then we exit the procedure.

Below you can see the final bouncingBalls() procedure.
I’ve added a parameter to this function so one can choose to let a ball bounce until it’s done, or have a ball restart bouncing over and over again.


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void BouncingColoredBalls(int BallCount, byte colors[][3], boolean continuous) {
  float Gravity = -9.81;
  int StartHeight = 1;
 
  float Height[BallCount];
  float ImpactVelocityStart = sqrt( -2 * Gravity * StartHeight );
  float ImpactVelocity[BallCount];
  float TimeSinceLastBounce[BallCount];
  int   Position[BallCount];
  long  ClockTimeSinceLastBounce[BallCount];
  float Dampening[BallCount];
  boolean ballBouncing[BallCount];
  boolean ballsStillBouncing = true;
 
  for (int i = 0 ; i < BallCount ; i++) {  
    ClockTimeSinceLastBounce[i] = millis();
    Height[i] = StartHeight;
    Position[i] = 0;
    ImpactVelocity[i] = ImpactVelocityStart;
    TimeSinceLastBounce[i] = 0;
    Dampening[i] = 0.90 - float(i)/pow(BallCount,2);
    ballBouncing[i]=true;
  }

  while (ballsStillBouncing) {
    for (int i = 0 ; i < BallCount ; i++) {
      TimeSinceLastBounce[i] =  millis() - ClockTimeSinceLastBounce[i];
      Height[i] = 0.5 * Gravity * pow( TimeSinceLastBounce[i]/1000 , 2.0 ) + ImpactVelocity[i] * TimeSinceLastBounce[i]/1000;
 
      if ( Height[i] < 0 ) {                      
        Height[i] = 0;
        ImpactVelocity[i] = Dampening[i] * ImpactVelocity[i];
        ClockTimeSinceLastBounce[i] = millis();
 
        if ( ImpactVelocity[i] < 0.01 ) {
          if (continuous) {
            ImpactVelocity[i] = ImpactVelocityStart;
          } else {
            ballBouncing[i]=false;
          }
        }
      }
      Position[i] = round( Height[i] * (NUM_LEDS - 1) / StartHeight);
    }

    ballsStillBouncing = false; // assume no balls bouncing
    for (int i = 0 ; i < BallCount ; i++) {
      setPixel(Position[i],colors[i][0],colors[i][1],colors[i][2]);
      if ( ballBouncing[i] ) {
        ballsStillBouncing = true;
      }
    }
   
    showStrip();
    setAll(0,0,0);
  }
}

Challenge 2 – Catching that button

Next challenge was adding a button to toggle the effects.

Initially I started with following the good Button tutorial on the Arduino website, until I found a slightly easier method. As you can see in the Arduino tutorial, they use a resistor. Now it seems (took me a while before I bumped into that one by accident) there is an internal resistor for this as well – so I decided to use that to keep the hardware setup easier.

Of course we need to define what PIN we want to use for our button. Here we have to pay attention (you’ll see more about that in the next challenge).
We want the button to basically “interrupt” an effect so we can switch right away to another effect.
If we would do it the “usual” way, then we’d find ourselves adding lots and lots of code to try to catch the button status – something I’d like to avoid.

To have a button “interrupt” the flow of the code, we must use either PIN 2 and PIN 3 (on an Arduino UNO). Per the guide of the Arduino website:

Pins for Interrupt Button
 Uno, Nano, Mini, other 328-based  2, 3
 Mega, Mega2560, MegaADK  2, 3, 18, 19, 20, 21
 Micro, Leonardo, other 32u4-based  0, 1, 2, 3, 7
 Zero  All digital pins, except pin 4
 MKR1000 Rev.1  0, 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A1, A2
 Due  all digital pins
 101  2, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13

To make a button work with the internal pull-up resistor, we will have to add a line to the “setup()” function:


digitalWrite (BUTTON, HIGH);  // internal pull-up resistor

Later we can test if a button was pressed with:


if (digitalRead (BUTTON) == HIGH) {
  ...
}

Challenge 3 – Interrupt an effect and catch that button

This method is what worked best for me, and I’m sure there are better options out there.

I used a so called interrupt, that’s why we choose pin 2 for the switch. We want to catch the button press at any given time and we want to attach a function to an interrupt caused by pressing the button and for this we can use the “attachInterrupt()” function. If you’d like to dig deeper in this topic, please read the Arduino attachInterrupt Documentation.

In essence: When the state of the button (BUTTON) changes (CHANGE), we’d like to call for our own function (changeEffect()).

Which in code would look something like this:


attachInterrupt (digitalPinToInterrupt(BUTTON), changeEffect, CHANGE); // pressed

When reading the documentation you might wonder why I used the “CHANGE” mode instead of the “LOW” or “HIGH” mode. The reason is that both produced unexpected effects, like I pressed the button multiple times. So instead I used “CHANGE” and in our own function “changeEffect()” I then determine what the button state is and react accordingly. This is super fast!

This works surprisingly well!


void changeEffect() {
  if (digitalRead (BUTTON) == HIGH) {
    selectedEffect++;
  }
}

Once a button is pressed, our function will increase the value of “selectedEffect” by one.

Challenge 4 – Initiate the start of a new effect

So now we can catch the button being pressed at any time. Great!
But how do we go back to the beginning of the “loop()” function?

Since we have different levels of nested loops and functions, simply using “break” or “return” is not going to cut it.
So I had to come up with something better. How do I restart the loop?

Well, again there is no simple straight forward method for that it seems, and where ever you look on the Internet; questions like these will simply not be answered since folks think they need to explain that we need to program things differently. What’s up with that?

Eventually I found a sweet little piece of assembler code (unlike the C language Arduino uses) that resets the Arduino and starts over again – we basically let the Arduino jump back to address 0 (zero) so it starts over again. This works great:


asm volatile ("  jmp 0");

This line can be added anywhere in your code and your Arduino WILL reset.

Combined with the previous challenge, our button press will call:


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void changeEffect() {
  if (digitalRead (BUTTON) == HIGH) {
    selectedEffect++;
    asm volatile ("  jmp 0");
  }
}

Note: this is more complicated than it sounds and comes with consequences – none of them harm your Arduino – which more experienced developers will tell you to pay attention to.

There is a ginormous downside to resetting your Arduino though: you’ll loose all your variables!
Or better said: the value the variables had, since they will be reinitiated blank …

So … that’s a problem, since we now no longer know what the selected effect was supposed to be.

Challenge 5 – Variable surviving a reset

You can imagine I had a good day trying to figure all this out – it was fun though,… now that it works.

So how do we store a value (the selected effect) without losing it? It’s not like the Arduino has a harddrive or SD card on which we can store the value …
Ehm … that’s not entirely true. The Arduino has an EEPROM – a piece of memory that does not loose it’s content after power is dropped, or a reset is being done.

Your Arduino actually has some functions for that! See the EEPROM documentation for more details.

One side note: you should not use the EEPROM for excessive read/write operations, as it has a limited live span (they say that I may fail after 100,000 read/write operations). Considering that this would take an awful lot of clicks, I’m not very worried with this application of the EEPROM.

Back to our last challenge: we just store the selected effect number (byte) in the EEPROM.

For this to work we will need to include the EEPROM library:


#include <EEPROM.h>

Writing and reading an EEPROM address is surprisingly easy:


// read EEPORM address 0 (1 byte)
EEPROM.get(0,selectedEffect);

// write EEPROM address 0 (also 1 byte)
EEPROM.put(0, selectedEffect);

As you can see in the code, the variable “selectedEffect” is of the type byte – which I did intentionally to keep things easy.
Address “0” of the EEPROM seems to be commonly used, so I didn’t see a reason to divert from that. Not all Arduino’s have the same amount of EEPROM space.

We cannot “set” the EEPROM in the “setup()” function with an initial value. After all, after a reset, the same “setup()” function would be called and … reset that value as well.

So instead I decided to read whatever is there. If the returning value is larger than the number of effects (18), then we set it to zero so it starts with the first effect again. Perfect to catch an odd value that was not initialized, and perfect for us cycling through effects.


EEPROM.get(0,selectedEffect);
 
if(selectedEffect>18) {
  selectedEffect=0;
  EEPROM.put(0,0);
}

Our button press function will now look like this:


void changeEffect() {
  if (digitalRead (BUTTON) == HIGH) {
    selectedEffect++;
    EEPROM.put(0, selectedEffect); // store the chose effect
    asm volatile ("  jmp 0");      // reset the Arduino
  }
}

Sources

You can download the sources in the beginning of this article.
If you’d like to review, then take a look here;

FastLED


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#include "FastLED.h"
#include <EEPROM.h>
#define NUM_LEDS 60
CRGB leds[NUM_LEDS];
#define PIN 5

#define BUTTON 2
byte selectedEffect=0;

void setup()
{
  FastLED.addLeds<WS2811, PIN, GRB>(leds, NUM_LEDS).setCorrection( TypicalLEDStrip );
  digitalWrite (BUTTON, HIGH);  // internal pull-up resistor
  attachInterrupt (digitalPinToInterrupt (BUTTON), changeEffect, CHANGE); // pressed
}

// *** REPLACE FROM HERE ***
void loop() {
  EEPROM.get(0,selectedEffect);
 
  if(selectedEffect>18) {
    selectedEffect=0;
    EEPROM.put(0,0);
  }
 
  switch(selectedEffect) {
   
    case 0  : {
                // RGBLoop - no parameters
                RGBLoop();
                break;
              }

    case 1  : {
                // FadeInOut - Color (red, green. blue)
                FadeInOut(0xff, 0x00, 0x00); // red
                FadeInOut(0xff, 0xff, 0xff); // white
                FadeInOut(0x00, 0x00, 0xff); // blue
                break;
              }
             
    case 2  : {
                // Strobe - Color (red, green, blue), number of flashes, flash speed, end pause
                Strobe(0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 10, 50, 1000);
                break;
              }

    case 3  : {
                // HalloweenEyes - Color (red, green, blue), Size of eye, space between eyes, fade (true/false), steps, fade delay, end pause
                HalloweenEyes(0xff, 0x00, 0x00,
                              1, 4,
                              true, random(5,50), random(50,150),
                              random(1000, 10000));
                HalloweenEyes(0xff, 0x00, 0x00,
                              1, 4,
                              true, random(5,50), random(50,150),
                              random(1000, 10000));
                break;
              }
             
    case 4  : {
                // CylonBounce - Color (red, green, blue), eye size, speed delay, end pause
                CylonBounce(0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 4, 10, 50);
                break;
              }
             
    case 5  : {
                // NewKITT - Color (red, green, blue), eye size, speed delay, end pause
                NewKITT(0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 8, 10, 50);
                break;
              }
             
    case 6  : {
                // Twinkle - Color (red, green, blue), count, speed delay, only one twinkle (true/false)
                Twinkle(0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 10, 100, false);
                break;
              }
             
    case 7  : {
                // TwinkleRandom - twinkle count, speed delay, only one (true/false)
                TwinkleRandom(20, 100, false);
                break;
              }
             
    case 8  : {
                // Sparkle - Color (red, green, blue), speed delay
                Sparkle(0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0);
                break;
              }
               
    case 9  : {
                // SnowSparkle - Color (red, green, blue), sparkle delay, speed delay
                SnowSparkle(0x10, 0x10, 0x10, 20, random(100,1000));
                break;
              }
             
    case 10 : {
                // Running Lights - Color (red, green, blue), wave dealy
                RunningLights(0xff,0x00,0x00, 50);  // red
                RunningLights(0xff,0xff,0xff, 50);  // white
                RunningLights(0x00,0x00,0xff, 50);  // blue
                break;
              }
             
    case 11 : {
                // colorWipe - Color (red, green, blue), speed delay
                colorWipe(0x00,0xff,0x00, 50);
                colorWipe(0x00,0x00,0x00, 50);
                break;
              }

    case 12 : {
                // rainbowCycle - speed delay
                rainbowCycle(20);
                break;
              }

    case 13 : {
                // theatherChase - Color (red, green, blue), speed delay
                theaterChase(0xff,0,0,50);
                break;
              }

    case 14 : {
                // theaterChaseRainbow - Speed delay
                theaterChaseRainbow(50);
                break;
              }

    case 15 : {
                // Fire - Cooling rate, Sparking rate, speed delay
                Fire(55,120,15);
                break;
              }


              // simple bouncingBalls not included, since BouncingColoredBalls can perform this as well as shown below
              // BouncingColoredBalls - Number of balls, color (red, green, blue) array, continuous
              // CAUTION: If set to continuous then this effect will never stop!!!
             
    case 16 : {
                // mimic BouncingBalls
                byte onecolor[1][3] = { {0xff, 0x00, 0x00} };
                BouncingColoredBalls(1, onecolor, false);
                break;
              }

    case 17 : {
                // multiple colored balls
                byte colors[3][3] = { {0xff, 0x00, 0x00},
                                      {0xff, 0xff, 0xff},
                                      {0x00, 0x00, 0xff} };
                BouncingColoredBalls(3, colors, false);
                break;
              }

    case 18 : {
                // meteorRain - Color (red, green, blue), meteor size, trail decay, random trail decay (true/false), speed delay
                meteorRain(0xff,0xff,0xff,10, 64, true, 30);
                break;
              }
  }
}

void changeEffect() {
  if (digitalRead (BUTTON) == HIGH) {
    selectedEffect++;
    EEPROM.put(0, selectedEffect);
    asm volatile ("  jmp 0");
  }
}


// *************************
// ** LEDEffect Functions **
// *************************

void RGBLoop(){
  for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++ ) {
    // Fade IN
    for(int k = 0; k < 256; k++) {
      switch(j) {
        case 0: setAll(k,0,0); break;
        case 1: setAll(0,k,0); break;
        case 2: setAll(0,0,k); break;
      }
      showStrip();
      delay(3);
    }
    // Fade OUT
    for(int k = 255; k >= 0; k--) {
      switch(j) {
        case 0: setAll(k,0,0); break;
        case 1: setAll(0,k,0); break;
        case 2: setAll(0,0,k); break;
      }
      showStrip();
      delay(3);
    }
  }
}

void FadeInOut(byte red, byte green, byte blue){
  float r, g, b;
     
  for(int k = 0; k < 256; k=k+1) {
    r = (k/256.0)*red;
    g = (k/256.0)*green;
    b = (k/256.0)*blue;
    setAll(r,g,b);
    showStrip();
  }
     
  for(int k = 255; k >= 0; k=k-2) {
    r = (k/256.0)*red;
    g = (k/256.0)*green;
    b = (k/256.0)*blue;
    setAll(r,g,b);
    showStrip();
  }
}

void Strobe(byte red, byte green, byte blue, int StrobeCount, int FlashDelay, int EndPause){
  for(int j = 0; j < StrobeCount; j++) {
    setAll(red,green,blue);
    showStrip();
    delay(FlashDelay);
    setAll(0,0,0);
    showStrip();
    delay(FlashDelay);
  }
 
 delay(EndPause);
}

void HalloweenEyes(byte red, byte green, byte blue,
                   int EyeWidth, int EyeSpace,
                   boolean Fade, int Steps, int FadeDelay,
                   int EndPause){
  randomSeed(analogRead(0));
 
  int i;
  int StartPoint  = random( 0, NUM_LEDS - (2*EyeWidth) - EyeSpace );
  int Start2ndEye = StartPoint + EyeWidth + EyeSpace;
 
  for(i = 0; i < EyeWidth; i++) {
    setPixel(StartPoint + i, red, green, blue);
    setPixel(Start2ndEye + i, red, green, blue);
  }
 
  showStrip();
 
  if(Fade==true) {
    float r, g, b;
 
    for(int j = Steps; j >= 0; j--) {
      r = j*(red/Steps);
      g = j*(green/Steps);
      b = j*(blue/Steps);
     
      for(i = 0; i < EyeWidth; i++) {
        setPixel(StartPoint + i, r, g, b);
        setPixel(Start2ndEye + i, r, g, b);
      }
     
      showStrip();
      delay(FadeDelay);
    }
  }
 
  setAll(0,0,0); // Set all black
 
  delay(EndPause);
}

void CylonBounce(byte red, byte green, byte blue, int EyeSize, int SpeedDelay, int ReturnDelay){

  for(int i = 0; i < NUM_LEDS-EyeSize-2; i++) {
    setAll(0,0,0);
    setPixel(i, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
    for(int j = 1; j <= EyeSize; j++) {
      setPixel(i+j, red, green, blue);
    }
    setPixel(i+EyeSize+1, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
    showStrip();
    delay(SpeedDelay);
  }

  delay(ReturnDelay);

  for(int i = NUM_LEDS-EyeSize-2; i > 0; i--) {
    setAll(0,0,0);
    setPixel(i, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
    for(int j = 1; j <= EyeSize; j++) {
      setPixel(i+j, red, green, blue);
    }
    setPixel(i+EyeSize+1, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
    showStrip();
    delay(SpeedDelay);
  }
 
  delay(ReturnDelay);
}

void NewKITT(byte red, byte green, byte blue, int EyeSize, int SpeedDelay, int ReturnDelay){
  RightToLeft(red, green, blue, EyeSize, SpeedDelay, ReturnDelay);
  LeftToRight(red, green, blue, EyeSize, SpeedDelay, ReturnDelay);
  OutsideToCenter(red, green, blue, EyeSize, SpeedDelay, ReturnDelay);
  CenterToOutside(red, green, blue, EyeSize, SpeedDelay, ReturnDelay);
  LeftToRight(red, green, blue, EyeSize, SpeedDelay, ReturnDelay);
  RightToLeft(red, green, blue, EyeSize, SpeedDelay, ReturnDelay);
  OutsideToCenter(red, green, blue, EyeSize, SpeedDelay, ReturnDelay);
  CenterToOutside(red, green, blue, EyeSize, SpeedDelay, ReturnDelay);
}

// used by NewKITT
void CenterToOutside(byte red, byte green, byte blue, int EyeSize, int SpeedDelay, int ReturnDelay) {
  for(int i =((NUM_LEDS-EyeSize)/2); i>=0; i--) {
    setAll(0,0,0);
   
    setPixel(i, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
    for(int j = 1; j <= EyeSize; j++) {
      setPixel(i+j, red, green, blue);
    }
    setPixel(i+EyeSize+1, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
   
    setPixel(NUM_LEDS-i, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
    for(int j = 1; j <= EyeSize; j++) {
      setPixel(NUM_LEDS-i-j, red, green, blue);
    }
    setPixel(NUM_LEDS-i-EyeSize-1, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
   
    showStrip();
    delay(SpeedDelay);
  }
  delay(ReturnDelay);
}

// used by NewKITT
void OutsideToCenter(byte red, byte green, byte blue, int EyeSize, int SpeedDelay, int ReturnDelay) {
  for(int i = 0; i<=((NUM_LEDS-EyeSize)/2); i++) {
    setAll(0,0,0);
   
    setPixel(i, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
    for(int j = 1; j <= EyeSize; j++) {
      setPixel(i+j, red, green, blue);
    }
    setPixel(i+EyeSize+1, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
   
    setPixel(NUM_LEDS-i, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
    for(int j = 1; j <= EyeSize; j++) {
      setPixel(NUM_LEDS-i-j, red, green, blue);
    }
    setPixel(NUM_LEDS-i-EyeSize-1, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
   
    showStrip();
    delay(SpeedDelay);
  }
  delay(ReturnDelay);
}

// used by NewKITT
void LeftToRight(byte red, byte green, byte blue, int EyeSize, int SpeedDelay, int ReturnDelay) {
  for(int i = 0; i < NUM_LEDS-EyeSize-2; i++) {
    setAll(0,0,0);
    setPixel(i, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
    for(int j = 1; j <= EyeSize; j++) {
      setPixel(i+j, red, green, blue);
    }
    setPixel(i+EyeSize+1, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
    showStrip();
    delay(SpeedDelay);
  }
  delay(ReturnDelay);
}

// used by NewKITT
void RightToLeft(byte red, byte green, byte blue, int EyeSize, int SpeedDelay, int ReturnDelay) {
  for(int i = NUM_LEDS-EyeSize-2; i > 0; i--) {
    setAll(0,0,0);
    setPixel(i, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
    for(int j = 1; j <= EyeSize; j++) {
      setPixel(i+j, red, green, blue);
    }
    setPixel(i+EyeSize+1, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
    showStrip();
    delay(SpeedDelay);
  }
  delay(ReturnDelay);
}

void Twinkle(byte red, byte green, byte blue, int Count, int SpeedDelay, boolean OnlyOne) {
  setAll(0,0,0);
 
  for (int i=0; i<Count; i++) {
     setPixel(random(NUM_LEDS),red,green,blue);
     showStrip();
     delay(SpeedDelay);
     if(OnlyOne) {
       setAll(0,0,0);
     }
   }
 
  delay(SpeedDelay);
}

void TwinkleRandom(int Count, int SpeedDelay, boolean OnlyOne) {
  setAll(0,0,0);
 
  for (int i=0; i<Count; i++) {
     setPixel(random(NUM_LEDS),random(0,255),random(0,255),random(0,255));
     showStrip();
     delay(SpeedDelay);
     if(OnlyOne) {
       setAll(0,0,0);
     }
   }
 
  delay(SpeedDelay);
}

void Sparkle(byte red, byte green, byte blue, int SpeedDelay) {
  int Pixel = random(NUM_LEDS);
  setPixel(Pixel,red,green,blue);
  showStrip();
  delay(SpeedDelay);
  setPixel(Pixel,0,0,0);
}

void SnowSparkle(byte red, byte green, byte blue, int SparkleDelay, int SpeedDelay) {
  setAll(red,green,blue);
 
  int Pixel = random(NUM_LEDS);
  setPixel(Pixel,0xff,0xff,0xff);
  showStrip();
  delay(SparkleDelay);
  setPixel(Pixel,red,green,blue);
  showStrip();
  delay(SpeedDelay);
}

void RunningLights(byte red, byte green, byte blue, int WaveDelay) {
  int Position=0;
 
  for(int i=0; i<NUM_LEDS*2; i++)
  {
      Position++; // = 0; //Position + Rate;
      for(int i=0; i<NUM_LEDS; i++) {
        // sine wave, 3 offset waves make a rainbow!
        //float level = sin(i+Position) * 127 + 128;
        //setPixel(i,level,0,0);
        //float level = sin(i+Position) * 127 + 128;
        setPixel(i,((sin(i+Position) * 127 + 128)/255)*red,
                   ((sin(i+Position) * 127 + 128)/255)*green,
                   ((sin(i+Position) * 127 + 128)/255)*blue);
      }
     
      showStrip();
      delay(WaveDelay);
  }
}

void colorWipe(byte red, byte green, byte blue, int SpeedDelay) {
  for(uint16_t i=0; i<NUM_LEDS; i++) {
      setPixel(i, red, green, blue);
      showStrip();
      delay(SpeedDelay);
  }
}

void rainbowCycle(int SpeedDelay) {
  byte *c;
  uint16_t i, j;

  for(j=0; j<256*5; j++) { // 5 cycles of all colors on wheel
    for(i=0; i< NUM_LEDS; i++) {
      c=Wheel(((i * 256 / NUM_LEDS) + j) & 255);
      setPixel(i, *c, *(c+1), *(c+2));
    }
    showStrip();
    delay(SpeedDelay);
  }
}

// used by rainbowCycle and theaterChaseRainbow
byte * Wheel(byte WheelPos) {
  static byte c[3];
 
  if(WheelPos < 85) {
   c[0]=WheelPos * 3;
   c[1]=255 - WheelPos * 3;
   c[2]=0;
  } else if(WheelPos < 170) {
   WheelPos -= 85;
   c[0]=255 - WheelPos * 3;
   c[1]=0;
   c[2]=WheelPos * 3;
  } else {
   WheelPos -= 170;
   c[0]=0;
   c[1]=WheelPos * 3;
   c[2]=255 - WheelPos * 3;
  }

  return c;
}

void theaterChase(byte red, byte green, byte blue, int SpeedDelay) {
  for (int j=0; j<10; j++) {  //do 10 cycles of chasing
    for (int q=0; q < 3; q++) {
      for (int i=0; i < NUM_LEDS; i=i+3) {
        setPixel(i+q, red, green, blue);    //turn every third pixel on
      }
      showStrip();
     
      delay(SpeedDelay);
     
      for (int i=0; i < NUM_LEDS; i=i+3) {
        setPixel(i+q, 0,0,0);        //turn every third pixel off
      }
    }
  }
}

void theaterChaseRainbow(int SpeedDelay) {
  byte *c;
 
  for (int j=0; j < 256; j++) {     // cycle all 256 colors in the wheel
    for (int q=0; q < 3; q++) {
        for (int i=0; i < NUM_LEDS; i=i+3) {
          c = Wheel( (i+j) % 255);
          setPixel(i+q, *c, *(c+1), *(c+2));    //turn every third pixel on
        }
        showStrip();
       
        delay(SpeedDelay);
       
        for (int i=0; i < NUM_LEDS; i=i+3) {
          setPixel(i+q, 0,0,0);        //turn every third pixel off
        }
    }
  }
}

void Fire(int Cooling, int Sparking, int SpeedDelay) {
  static byte heat[NUM_LEDS];
  int cooldown;
 
  // Step 1.  Cool down every cell a little
  for( int i = 0; i < NUM_LEDS; i++) {
    cooldown = random(0, ((Cooling * 10) / NUM_LEDS) + 2);
   
    if(cooldown>heat[i]) {
      heat[i]=0;
    } else {
      heat[i]=heat[i]-cooldown;
    }
  }
 
  // Step 2.  Heat from each cell drifts 'up' and diffuses a little
  for( int k= NUM_LEDS - 1; k >= 2; k--) {
    heat[k] = (heat[k - 1] + heat[k - 2] + heat[k - 2]) / 3;
  }
   
  // Step 3.  Randomly ignite new 'sparks' near the bottom
  if( random(255) < Sparking ) {
    int y = random(7);
    heat[y] = heat[y] + random(160,255);
    //heat[y] = random(160,255);
  }

  // Step 4.  Convert heat to LED colors
  for( int j = 0; j < NUM_LEDS; j++) {
    setPixelHeatColor(j, heat[j] );
  }

  showStrip();
  delay(SpeedDelay);
}

void setPixelHeatColor (int Pixel, byte temperature) {
  // Scale 'heat' down from 0-255 to 0-191
  byte t192 = round((temperature/255.0)*191);
 
  // calculate ramp up from
  byte heatramp = t192 & 0x3F; // 0..63
  heatramp <<= 2; // scale up to 0..252
 
  // figure out which third of the spectrum we're in:
  if( t192 > 0x80) {                     // hottest
    setPixel(Pixel, 255, 255, heatramp);
  } else if( t192 > 0x40 ) {             // middle
    setPixel(Pixel, 255, heatramp, 0);
  } else {                               // coolest
    setPixel(Pixel, heatramp, 0, 0);
  }
}

void BouncingColoredBalls(int BallCount, byte colors[][3], boolean continuous) {
  float Gravity = -9.81;
  int StartHeight = 1;
 
  float Height[BallCount];
  float ImpactVelocityStart = sqrt( -2 * Gravity * StartHeight );
  float ImpactVelocity[BallCount];
  float TimeSinceLastBounce[BallCount];
  int   Position[BallCount];
  long  ClockTimeSinceLastBounce[BallCount];
  float Dampening[BallCount];
  boolean ballBouncing[BallCount];
  boolean ballsStillBouncing = true;
 
  for (int i = 0 ; i < BallCount ; i++) {  
    ClockTimeSinceLastBounce[i] = millis();
    Height[i] = StartHeight;
    Position[i] = 0;
    ImpactVelocity[i] = ImpactVelocityStart;
    TimeSinceLastBounce[i] = 0;
    Dampening[i] = 0.90 - float(i)/pow(BallCount,2);
    ballBouncing[i]=true;
  }

  while (ballsStillBouncing) {
    for (int i = 0 ; i < BallCount ; i++) {
      TimeSinceLastBounce[i] =  millis() - ClockTimeSinceLastBounce[i];
      Height[i] = 0.5 * Gravity * pow( TimeSinceLastBounce[i]/1000 , 2.0 ) + ImpactVelocity[i] * TimeSinceLastBounce[i]/1000;
 
      if ( Height[i] < 0 ) {                      
        Height[i] = 0;
        ImpactVelocity[i] = Dampening[i] * ImpactVelocity[i];
        ClockTimeSinceLastBounce[i] = millis();
 
        if ( ImpactVelocity[i] < 0.01 ) {
          if (continuous) {
            ImpactVelocity[i] = ImpactVelocityStart;
          } else {
            ballBouncing[i]=false;
          }
        }
      }
      Position[i] = round( Height[i] * (NUM_LEDS - 1) / StartHeight);
    }

    ballsStillBouncing = false; // assume no balls bouncing
    for (int i = 0 ; i < BallCount ; i++) {
      setPixel(Position[i],colors[i][0],colors[i][1],colors[i][2]);
      if ( ballBouncing[i] ) {
        ballsStillBouncing = true;
      }
    }
   
    showStrip();
    setAll(0,0,0);
  }
}

void meteorRain(byte red, byte green, byte blue, byte meteorSize, byte meteorTrailDecay, boolean meteorRandomDecay, int SpeedDelay) {  
  setAll(0,0,0);
 
  for(int i = 0; i < NUM_LEDS+NUM_LEDS; i++) {
   
   
    // fade brightness all LEDs one step
    for(int j=0; j<NUM_LEDS; j++) {
      if( (!meteorRandomDecay) || (random(10)>5) ) {
        fadeToBlack(j, meteorTrailDecay );        
      }
    }
   
    // draw meteor
    for(int j = 0; j < meteorSize; j++) {
      if( ( i-j <NUM_LEDS) && (i-j>=0) ) {
        setPixel(i-j, red, green, blue);
      }
    }
   
    showStrip();
    delay(SpeedDelay);
  }
}

// used by meteorrain
void fadeToBlack(int ledNo, byte fadeValue) {
 #ifdef ADAFRUIT_NEOPIXEL_H
    // NeoPixel
    uint32_t oldColor;
    uint8_t r, g, b;
    int value;
   
    oldColor = strip.getPixelColor(ledNo);
    r = (oldColor & 0x00ff0000UL) >> 16;
    g = (oldColor & 0x0000ff00UL) >> 8;
    b = (oldColor & 0x000000ffUL);

    r=(r<=10)? 0 : (int) r-(r*fadeValue/256);
    g=(g<=10)? 0 : (int) g-(g*fadeValue/256);
    b=(b<=10)? 0 : (int) b-(b*fadeValue/256);
   
    strip.setPixelColor(ledNo, r,g,b);
 #endif
 #ifndef ADAFRUIT_NEOPIXEL_H
   // FastLED
   leds[ledNo].fadeToBlackBy( fadeValue );
 #endif  
}

// *** REPLACE TO HERE ***



// ***************************************
// ** FastLed/NeoPixel Common Functions **
// ***************************************

// Apply LED color changes
void showStrip() {
 #ifdef ADAFRUIT_NEOPIXEL_H
   // NeoPixel
   strip.show();
 #endif
 #ifndef ADAFRUIT_NEOPIXEL_H
   // FastLED
   FastLED.show();
 #endif
}

// Set a LED color (not yet visible)
void setPixel(int Pixel, byte red, byte green, byte blue) {
 #ifdef ADAFRUIT_NEOPIXEL_H
   // NeoPixel
   strip.setPixelColor(Pixel, strip.Color(red, green, blue));
 #endif
 #ifndef ADAFRUIT_NEOPIXEL_H
   // FastLED
   leds[Pixel].r = red;
   leds[Pixel].g = green;
   leds[Pixel].b = blue;
 #endif
}

// Set all LEDs to a given color and apply it (visible)
void setAll(byte red, byte green, byte blue) {
  for(int i = 0; i < NUM_LEDS; i++ ) {
    setPixel(i, red, green, blue);
  }
  showStrip();
}

NeoPixel


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#include <Adafruit_NeoPixel.h>
#include <EEPROM.h>

#define NUM_LEDS 60
#define PIN 5
Adafruit_NeoPixel strip = Adafruit_NeoPixel(NUM_LEDS, PIN, NEO_GRB + NEO_KHZ800);

#define BUTTON 2
byte selectedEffect=0;

void setup()
{
  strip.begin();
  strip.show(); // Initialize all pixels to 'off'
  digitalWrite (BUTTON, HIGH);  // internal pull-up resistor
  attachInterrupt (digitalPinToInterrupt (BUTTON), changeEffect, CHANGE); // pressed
}

// *** REPLACE FROM HERE ***
void loop() {
  EEPROM.get(0,selectedEffect);
 
  if(selectedEffect>18) {
    selectedEffect=0;
    EEPROM.put(0,0);
  }
 
  switch(selectedEffect) {
   
    case 0  : {
                // RGBLoop - no parameters
                RGBLoop();
                break;
              }

    case 1  : {
                // FadeInOut - Color (red, green. blue)
                FadeInOut(0xff, 0x00, 0x00); // red
                FadeInOut(0xff, 0xff, 0xff); // white
                FadeInOut(0x00, 0x00, 0xff); // blue
                break;
              }
             
    case 2  : {
                // Strobe - Color (red, green, blue), number of flashes, flash speed, end pause
                Strobe(0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 10, 50, 1000);
                break;
              }

    case 3  : {
                // HalloweenEyes - Color (red, green, blue), Size of eye, space between eyes, fade (true/false), steps, fade delay, end pause
                HalloweenEyes(0xff, 0x00, 0x00,
                              1, 4,
                              true, random(5,50), random(50,150),
                              random(1000, 10000));
                HalloweenEyes(0xff, 0x00, 0x00,
                              1, 4,
                              true, random(5,50), random(50,150),
                              random(1000, 10000));
                break;
              }
             
    case 4  : {
                // CylonBounce - Color (red, green, blue), eye size, speed delay, end pause
                CylonBounce(0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 4, 10, 50);
                break;
              }
             
    case 5  : {
                // NewKITT - Color (red, green, blue), eye size, speed delay, end pause
                NewKITT(0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 8, 10, 50);
                break;
              }
             
    case 6  : {
                // Twinkle - Color (red, green, blue), count, speed delay, only one twinkle (true/false)
                Twinkle(0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 10, 100, false);
                break;
              }
             
    case 7  : {
                // TwinkleRandom - twinkle count, speed delay, only one (true/false)
                TwinkleRandom(20, 100, false);
                break;
              }
             
    case 8  : {
                // Sparkle - Color (red, green, blue), speed delay
                Sparkle(0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0);
                break;
              }
               
    case 9  : {
                // SnowSparkle - Color (red, green, blue), sparkle delay, speed delay
                SnowSparkle(0x10, 0x10, 0x10, 20, random(100,1000));
                break;
              }
             
    case 10 : {
                // Running Lights - Color (red, green, blue), wave dealy
                RunningLights(0xff,0x00,0x00, 50);  // red
                RunningLights(0xff,0xff,0xff, 50);  // white
                RunningLights(0x00,0x00,0xff, 50);  // blue
                break;
              }
             
    case 11 : {
                // colorWipe - Color (red, green, blue), speed delay
                colorWipe(0x00,0xff,0x00, 50);
                colorWipe(0x00,0x00,0x00, 50);
                break;
              }

    case 12 : {
                // rainbowCycle - speed delay
                rainbowCycle(20);
                break;
              }

    case 13 : {
                // theatherChase - Color (red, green, blue), speed delay
                theaterChase(0xff,0,0,50);
                break;
              }

    case 14 : {
                // theaterChaseRainbow - Speed delay
                theaterChaseRainbow(50);
                break;
              }

    case 15 : {
                // Fire - Cooling rate, Sparking rate, speed delay
                Fire(55,120,15);
                break;
              }


              // simple bouncingBalls not included, since BouncingColoredBalls can perform this as well as shown below
              // BouncingColoredBalls - Number of balls, color (red, green, blue) array, continuous
              // CAUTION: If set to continuous then this effect will never stop!!!
             
    case 16 : {
                // mimic BouncingBalls
                byte onecolor[1][3] = { {0xff, 0x00, 0x00} };
                BouncingColoredBalls(1, onecolor, false);
                break;
              }

    case 17 : {
                // multiple colored balls
                byte colors[3][3] = { {0xff, 0x00, 0x00},
                                      {0xff, 0xff, 0xff},
                                      {0x00, 0x00, 0xff} };
                BouncingColoredBalls(3, colors, false);
                break;
              }

    case 18 : {
                // meteorRain - Color (red, green, blue), meteor size, trail decay, random trail decay (true/false), speed delay
                meteorRain(0xff,0xff,0xff,10, 64, true, 30);
                break;
              }
  }
}

void changeEffect() {
  if (digitalRead (BUTTON) == HIGH) {
    selectedEffect++;
    EEPROM.put(0, selectedEffect);
    asm volatile ("  jmp 0");
  }
}


// *************************
// ** LEDEffect Functions **
// *************************

void RGBLoop(){
  for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++ ) {
    // Fade IN
    for(int k = 0; k < 256; k++) {
      switch(j) {
        case 0: setAll(k,0,0); break;
        case 1: setAll(0,k,0); break;
        case 2: setAll(0,0,k); break;
      }
      showStrip();
      delay(3);
    }
    // Fade OUT
    for(int k = 255; k >= 0; k--) {
      switch(j) {
        case 0: setAll(k,0,0); break;
        case 1: setAll(0,k,0); break;
        case 2: setAll(0,0,k); break;
      }
      showStrip();
      delay(3);
    }
  }
}

void FadeInOut(byte red, byte green, byte blue){
  float r, g, b;
     
  for(int k = 0; k < 256; k=k+1) {
    r = (k/256.0)*red;
    g = (k/256.0)*green;
    b = (k/256.0)*blue;
    setAll(r,g,b);
    showStrip();
  }
     
  for(int k = 255; k >= 0; k=k-2) {
    r = (k/256.0)*red;
    g = (k/256.0)*green;
    b = (k/256.0)*blue;
    setAll(r,g,b);
    showStrip();
  }
}

void Strobe(byte red, byte green, byte blue, int StrobeCount, int FlashDelay, int EndPause){
  for(int j = 0; j < StrobeCount; j++) {
    setAll(red,green,blue);
    showStrip();
    delay(FlashDelay);
    setAll(0,0,0);
    showStrip();
    delay(FlashDelay);
  }
 
 delay(EndPause);
}

void HalloweenEyes(byte red, byte green, byte blue,
                   int EyeWidth, int EyeSpace,
                   boolean Fade, int Steps, int FadeDelay,
                   int EndPause){
  randomSeed(analogRead(0));
 
  int i;
  int StartPoint  = random( 0, NUM_LEDS - (2*EyeWidth) - EyeSpace );
  int Start2ndEye = StartPoint + EyeWidth + EyeSpace;
 
  for(i = 0; i < EyeWidth; i++) {
    setPixel(StartPoint + i, red, green, blue);
    setPixel(Start2ndEye + i, red, green, blue);
  }
 
  showStrip();
 
  if(Fade==true) {
    float r, g, b;
 
    for(int j = Steps; j >= 0; j--) {
      r = j*(red/Steps);
      g = j*(green/Steps);
      b = j*(blue/Steps);
     
      for(i = 0; i < EyeWidth; i++) {
        setPixel(StartPoint + i, r, g, b);
        setPixel(Start2ndEye + i, r, g, b);
      }
     
      showStrip();
      delay(FadeDelay);
    }
  }
 
  setAll(0,0,0); // Set all black
 
  delay(EndPause);
}

void CylonBounce(byte red, byte green, byte blue, int EyeSize, int SpeedDelay, int ReturnDelay){

  for(int i = 0; i < NUM_LEDS-EyeSize-2; i++) {
    setAll(0,0,0);
    setPixel(i, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
    for(int j = 1; j <= EyeSize; j++) {
      setPixel(i+j, red, green, blue);
    }
    setPixel(i+EyeSize+1, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
    showStrip();
    delay(SpeedDelay);
  }

  delay(ReturnDelay);

  for(int i = NUM_LEDS-EyeSize-2; i > 0; i--) {
    setAll(0,0,0);
    setPixel(i, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
    for(int j = 1; j <= EyeSize; j++) {
      setPixel(i+j, red, green, blue);
    }
    setPixel(i+EyeSize+1, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
    showStrip();
    delay(SpeedDelay);
  }
 
  delay(ReturnDelay);
}

void NewKITT(byte red, byte green, byte blue, int EyeSize, int SpeedDelay, int ReturnDelay){
  RightToLeft(red, green, blue, EyeSize, SpeedDelay, ReturnDelay);
  LeftToRight(red, green, blue, EyeSize, SpeedDelay, ReturnDelay);
  OutsideToCenter(red, green, blue, EyeSize, SpeedDelay, ReturnDelay);
  CenterToOutside(red, green, blue, EyeSize, SpeedDelay, ReturnDelay);
  LeftToRight(red, green, blue, EyeSize, SpeedDelay, ReturnDelay);
  RightToLeft(red, green, blue, EyeSize, SpeedDelay, ReturnDelay);
  OutsideToCenter(red, green, blue, EyeSize, SpeedDelay, ReturnDelay);
  CenterToOutside(red, green, blue, EyeSize, SpeedDelay, ReturnDelay);
}

// used by NewKITT
void CenterToOutside(byte red, byte green, byte blue, int EyeSize, int SpeedDelay, int ReturnDelay) {
  for(int i =((NUM_LEDS-EyeSize)/2); i>=0; i--) {
    setAll(0,0,0);
   
    setPixel(i, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
    for(int j = 1; j <= EyeSize; j++) {
      setPixel(i+j, red, green, blue);
    }
    setPixel(i+EyeSize+1, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
   
    setPixel(NUM_LEDS-i, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
    for(int j = 1; j <= EyeSize; j++) {
      setPixel(NUM_LEDS-i-j, red, green, blue);
    }
    setPixel(NUM_LEDS-i-EyeSize-1, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
   
    showStrip();
    delay(SpeedDelay);
  }
  delay(ReturnDelay);
}

// used by NewKITT
void OutsideToCenter(byte red, byte green, byte blue, int EyeSize, int SpeedDelay, int ReturnDelay) {
  for(int i = 0; i<=((NUM_LEDS-EyeSize)/2); i++) {
    setAll(0,0,0);
   
    setPixel(i, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
    for(int j = 1; j <= EyeSize; j++) {
      setPixel(i+j, red, green, blue);
    }
    setPixel(i+EyeSize+1, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
   
    setPixel(NUM_LEDS-i, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
    for(int j = 1; j <= EyeSize; j++) {
      setPixel(NUM_LEDS-i-j, red, green, blue);
    }
    setPixel(NUM_LEDS-i-EyeSize-1, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
   
    showStrip();
    delay(SpeedDelay);
  }
  delay(ReturnDelay);
}

// used by NewKITT
void LeftToRight(byte red, byte green, byte blue, int EyeSize, int SpeedDelay, int ReturnDelay) {
  for(int i = 0; i < NUM_LEDS-EyeSize-2; i++) {
    setAll(0,0,0);
    setPixel(i, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
    for(int j = 1; j <= EyeSize; j++) {
      setPixel(i+j, red, green, blue);
    }
    setPixel(i+EyeSize+1, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
    showStrip();
    delay(SpeedDelay);
  }
  delay(ReturnDelay);
}

// used by NewKITT
void RightToLeft(byte red, byte green, byte blue, int EyeSize, int SpeedDelay, int ReturnDelay) {
  for(int i = NUM_LEDS-EyeSize-2; i > 0; i--) {
    setAll(0,0,0);
    setPixel(i, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
    for(int j = 1; j <= EyeSize; j++) {
      setPixel(i+j, red, green, blue);
    }
    setPixel(i+EyeSize+1, red/10, green/10, blue/10);
    showStrip();
    delay(SpeedDelay);
  }
  delay(ReturnDelay);
}

void Twinkle(byte red, byte green, byte blue, int Count, int SpeedDelay, boolean OnlyOne) {
  setAll(0,0,0);
 
  for (int i=0; i<Count; i++) {
     setPixel(random(NUM_LEDS),red,green,blue);
     showStrip();
     delay(SpeedDelay);
     if(OnlyOne) {
       setAll(0,0,0);
     }
   }
 
  delay(SpeedDelay);
}

void TwinkleRandom(int Count, int SpeedDelay, boolean OnlyOne) {
  setAll(0,0,0);
 
  for (int i=0; i<Count; i++) {
     setPixel(random(NUM_LEDS),random(0,255),random(0,255),random(0,255));
     showStrip();
     delay(SpeedDelay);
     if(OnlyOne) {
       setAll(0,0,0);
     }
   }
 
  delay(SpeedDelay);
}

void Sparkle(byte red, byte green, byte blue, int SpeedDelay) {
  int Pixel = random(NUM_LEDS);
  setPixel(Pixel,red,green,blue);
  showStrip();
  delay(SpeedDelay);
  setPixel(Pixel,0,0,0);
}

void SnowSparkle(byte red, byte green, byte blue, int SparkleDelay, int SpeedDelay) {
  setAll(red,green,blue);
 
  int Pixel = random(NUM_LEDS);
  setPixel(Pixel,0xff,0xff,0xff);
  showStrip();
  delay(SparkleDelay);
  setPixel(Pixel,red,green,blue);
  showStrip();
  delay(SpeedDelay);
}

void RunningLights(byte red, byte green, byte blue, int WaveDelay) {
  int Position=0;
 
  for(int i=0; i<NUM_LEDS*2; i++)
  {
      Position++; // = 0; //Position + Rate;
      for(int i=0; i<NUM_LEDS; i++) {
        // sine wave, 3 offset waves make a rainbow!
        //float level = sin(i+Position) * 127 + 128;
        //setPixel(i,level,0,0);
        //float level = sin(i+Position) * 127 + 128;
        setPixel(i,((sin(i+Position) * 127 + 128)/255)*red,
                   ((sin(i+Position) * 127 + 128)/255)*green,
                   ((sin(i+Position) * 127 + 128)/255)*blue);
      }
     
      showStrip();
      delay(WaveDelay);
  }
}

void colorWipe(byte red, byte green, byte blue, int SpeedDelay) {
  for(uint16_t i=0; i<NUM_LEDS; i++) {
      setPixel(i, red, green, blue);
      showStrip();
      delay(SpeedDelay);
  }
}

void rainbowCycle(int SpeedDelay) {
  byte *c;
  uint16_t i, j;

  for(j=0; j<256*5; j++) { // 5 cycles of all colors on wheel
    for(i=0; i< NUM_LEDS; i++) {
      c=Wheel(((i * 256 / NUM_LEDS) + j) & 255);
      setPixel(i, *c, *(c+1), *(c+2));
    }
    showStrip();
    delay(SpeedDelay);
  }
}

// used by rainbowCycle and theaterChaseRainbow
byte * Wheel(byte WheelPos) {
  static byte c[3];
 
  if(WheelPos < 85) {
   c[0]=WheelPos * 3;
   c[1]=255 - WheelPos * 3;
   c[2]=0;
  } else if(WheelPos < 170) {
   WheelPos -= 85;
   c[0]=255 - WheelPos * 3;
   c[1]=0;
   c[2]=WheelPos * 3;
  } else {
   WheelPos -= 170;
   c[0]=0;
   c[1]=WheelPos * 3;
   c[2]=255 - WheelPos * 3;
  }

  return c;
}

void theaterChase(byte red, byte green, byte blue, int SpeedDelay) {
  for (int j=0; j<10; j++) {  //do 10 cycles of chasing
    for (int q=0; q < 3; q++) {
      for (int i=0; i < NUM_LEDS; i=i+3) {
        setPixel(i+q, red, green, blue);    //turn every third pixel on
      }
      showStrip();
     
      delay(SpeedDelay);
     
      for (int i=0; i < NUM_LEDS; i=i+3) {
        setPixel(i+q, 0,0,0);        //turn every third pixel off
      }
    }
  }
}

void theaterChaseRainbow(int SpeedDelay) {
  byte *c;
 
  for (int j=0; j < 256; j++) {     // cycle all 256 colors in the wheel
    for (int q=0; q < 3; q++) {
        for (int i=0; i < NUM_LEDS; i=i+3) {
          c = Wheel( (i+j) % 255);
          setPixel(i+q, *c, *(c+1), *(c+2));    //turn every third pixel on
        }
        showStrip();
       
        delay(SpeedDelay);
       
        for (int i=0; i < NUM_LEDS; i=i+3) {
          setPixel(i+q, 0,0,0);        //turn every third pixel off
        }
    }
  }
}

void Fire(int Cooling, int Sparking, int SpeedDelay) {
  static byte heat[NUM_LEDS];
  int cooldown;
 
  // Step 1.  Cool down every cell a little
  for( int i = 0; i < NUM_LEDS; i++) {
    cooldown = random(0, ((Cooling * 10) / NUM_LEDS) + 2);
   
    if(cooldown>heat[i]) {
      heat[i]=0;
    } else {
      heat[i]=heat[i]-cooldown;
    }
  }
 
  // Step 2.  Heat from each cell drifts 'up' and diffuses a little
  for( int k= NUM_LEDS - 1; k >= 2; k--) {
    heat[k] = (heat[k - 1] + heat[k - 2] + heat[k - 2]) / 3;
  }
   
  // Step 3.  Randomly ignite new 'sparks' near the bottom
  if( random(255) < Sparking ) {
    int y = random(7);
    heat[y] = heat[y] + random(160,255);
    //heat[y] = random(160,255);
  }

  // Step 4.  Convert heat to LED colors
  for( int j = 0; j < NUM_LEDS; j++) {
    setPixelHeatColor(j, heat[j] );
  }

  showStrip();
  delay(SpeedDelay);
}

void setPixelHeatColor (int Pixel, byte temperature) {
  // Scale 'heat' down from 0-255 to 0-191
  byte t192 = round((temperature/255.0)*191);
 
  // calculate ramp up from
  byte heatramp = t192 & 0x3F; // 0..63
  heatramp <<= 2; // scale up to 0..252
 
  // figure out which third of the spectrum we're in:
  if( t192 > 0x80) {                     // hottest
    setPixel(Pixel, 255, 255, heatramp);
  } else if( t192 > 0x40 ) {             // middle
    setPixel(Pixel, 255, heatramp, 0);
  } else {                               // coolest
    setPixel(Pixel, heatramp, 0, 0);
  }
}

void BouncingColoredBalls(int BallCount, byte colors[][3], boolean continuous) {
  float Gravity = -9.81;
  int StartHeight = 1;
 
  float Height[BallCount];
  float ImpactVelocityStart = sqrt( -2 * Gravity * StartHeight );
  float ImpactVelocity[BallCount];
  float TimeSinceLastBounce[BallCount];
  int   Position[BallCount];
  long  ClockTimeSinceLastBounce[BallCount];
  float Dampening[BallCount];
  boolean ballBouncing[BallCount];
  boolean ballsStillBouncing = true;
 
  for (int i = 0 ; i < BallCount ; i++) {  
    ClockTimeSinceLastBounce[i] = millis();
    Height[i] = StartHeight;
    Position[i] = 0;
    ImpactVelocity[i] = ImpactVelocityStart;
    TimeSinceLastBounce[i] = 0;
    Dampening[i] = 0.90 - float(i)/pow(BallCount,2);
    ballBouncing[i]=true;
  }

  while (ballsStillBouncing) {
    for (int i = 0 ; i < BallCount ; i++) {
      TimeSinceLastBounce[i] =  millis() - ClockTimeSinceLastBounce[i];
      Height[i] = 0.5 * Gravity * pow( TimeSinceLastBounce[i]/1000 , 2.0 ) + ImpactVelocity[i] * TimeSinceLastBounce[i]/1000;
 
      if ( Height[i] < 0 ) {                      
        Height[i] = 0;
        ImpactVelocity[i] = Dampening[i] * ImpactVelocity[i];
        ClockTimeSinceLastBounce[i] = millis();
 
        if ( ImpactVelocity[i] < 0.01 ) {
          if (continuous) {
            ImpactVelocity[i] = ImpactVelocityStart;
          } else {
            ballBouncing[i]=false;
          }
        }
      }
      Position[i] = round( Height[i] * (NUM_LEDS - 1) / StartHeight);
    }

    ballsStillBouncing = false; // assume no balls bouncing
    for (int i = 0 ; i < BallCount ; i++) {
      setPixel(Position[i],colors[i][0],colors[i][1],colors[i][2]);
      if ( ballBouncing[i] ) {
        ballsStillBouncing = true;
      }
    }
   
    showStrip();
    setAll(0,0,0);
  }
}

void meteorRain(byte red, byte green, byte blue, byte meteorSize, byte meteorTrailDecay, boolean meteorRandomDecay, int SpeedDelay) {  
  setAll(0,0,0);
 
  for(int i = 0; i < NUM_LEDS+NUM_LEDS; i++) {
   
   
    // fade brightness all LEDs one step
    for(int j=0; j<NUM_LEDS; j++) {
      if( (!meteorRandomDecay) || (random(10)>5) ) {
        fadeToBlack(j, meteorTrailDecay );        
      }
    }
   
    // draw meteor
    for(int j = 0; j < meteorSize; j++) {
      if( ( i-j <NUM_LEDS) && (i-j>=0) ) {
        setPixel(i-j, red, green, blue);
      }
    }
   
    showStrip();
    delay(SpeedDelay);
  }
}

// used by meteorrain
void fadeToBlack(int ledNo, byte fadeValue) {
 #ifdef ADAFRUIT_NEOPIXEL_H
    // NeoPixel
    uint32_t oldColor;
    uint8_t r, g, b;
    int value;
   
    oldColor = strip.getPixelColor(ledNo);
    r = (oldColor & 0x00ff0000UL) >> 16;
    g = (oldColor & 0x0000ff00UL) >> 8;
    b = (oldColor & 0x000000ffUL);

    r=(r<=10)? 0 : (int) r-(r*fadeValue/256);
    g=(g<=10)? 0 : (int) g-(g*fadeValue/256);
    b=(b<=10)? 0 : (int) b-(b*fadeValue/256);
   
    strip.setPixelColor(ledNo, r,g,b);
 #endif
 #ifndef ADAFRUIT_NEOPIXEL_H
   // FastLED
   leds[ledNo].fadeToBlackBy( fadeValue );
 #endif  
}

// *** REPLACE TO HERE ***



// ***************************************
// ** FastLed/NeoPixel Common Functions **
// ***************************************

// Apply LED color changes
void showStrip() {
 #ifdef ADAFRUIT_NEOPIXEL_H
   // NeoPixel
   strip.show();
 #endif
 #ifndef ADAFRUIT_NEOPIXEL_H
   // FastLED
   FastLED.show();
 #endif
}

// Set a LED color (not yet visible)
void setPixel(int Pixel, byte red, byte green, byte blue) {
 #ifdef ADAFRUIT_NEOPIXEL_H
   // NeoPixel
   strip.setPixelColor(Pixel, strip.Color(red, green, blue));
 #endif
 #ifndef ADAFRUIT_NEOPIXEL_H
   // FastLED
   leds[Pixel].r = red;
   leds[Pixel].g = green;
   leds[Pixel].b = blue;
 #endif
}

// Set all LEDs to a given color and apply it (visible)
void setAll(byte red, byte green, byte blue) {
  for(int i = 0; i < NUM_LEDS; i++ ) {
    setPixel(i, red, green, blue);
  }
  showStrip();
}

 

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Comments


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  • Jan 7, 2018 - 5:43 PM - Spike Comment Link

    Hi Hans,

    Thank you so much for working all this out and sharing it with us.

    It is all way above my ability, which explains why I never managed to get it to work :-)

    I’m looking forward to getting the time to try this out.

    All the best

    Spike

    Reply

    Spike

    • Jan 8, 2018 - 3:14 PM - hans - Author: Comment Link

      Thanks Spike!

      And you’re most welcome – wish I could do these kind of articles all day long 
      But … keep in mind that I had to do my share of research as well, since some of these challenges are exactly that: challenges.

      Enjoy! 

      Reply

      hans

  • Jan 9, 2018 - 9:57 PM - Daniel Comment Link

    Hello Hans, thanks for the nice “All-in-One” Wonder!
    I test it and all seams to work ok.

    I smole problem that i have is the debouncing problem of
    the button, i use a Nano 328 and the latest Arduino IDE.

    When pushing the button, it jumps from selectedEffect 0
    to lets say 3 or 5, so i must click very fast the button to jump to
    nr. 2 and 3…

    In your setup()
    you use: digitalWrite (BUTTON, HIGH);  // internal pull-up resistor
    for buttons i use this line: pinMode(2,INPUT_PULLUP);
    …this sets the D2 as input and also activates the internal 40 kOhm
    in one wash.

    The new “meteorRain” is the coolest effect :-)
    With “FastLED”-Library i have some colored points in the String,
    behind this Effect, but only white color in “Adafruit_NeoPixel”.
    Is that the same in your string? Is “Adafruit_NeoPixel”
    not able to handle this colors?

    Reply

    Daniel

    • Jan 12, 2018 - 10:27 AM - hans - Author: Comment Link

      Hi Daniel,

      So using 

      pinMode(2,INPUT_PULLUP);

      instead of

      digitalWrite (BUTTON, HIGH); 

      works better? If you confirm that, then I will modify the code accordingly.
      (can’t test right now, since I stowed my stuff away again – argh – I need a workshop!)

      I did not experience the debouncing problem though – maybe the nature of the switch I’m using?

      FastLED is much more advanced when it comes to colors, ADAFruit NeoPixel is pretty limited. On my strand the meteor rain works correct with both, however the effect is much more refined with FastLED. A refinement of the fadeToBlack function might be helpful – as you can see, for FastLED I use a build in function, and for neoPixel I have to glue something together.

      Reply

      hans

      • Jan 13, 2018 - 3:04 PM - Daniel Comment Link

        Hello Hans, yes i allways use

        pinMode(Button,INPUT_PULLUP); //Activate internal 40k resistor to +5V

        because it is all done in one line, set digitalport to input and also set this input to +5v

        so i dont need any aditional 10k resistors from input-pin to ground and a button from

        input to +5v.

        This is allway better with PULUP because all ports are FET Inputs and so they have a very

        hi impedance witch is good …but a high impedance input, always pick up some noise or

        static loads…so the pins driving slowly to HIGH or at least 2-3V from ground away.

        I made a VU-Meter with Neopixels and i have the problem…in the pause (no sound)…

        the A= port starts climbing up and my Pixel starts one after another…so i put

        a 1 Megaohm from A0 to ground, then the port can not start growibg up because the 1M

        resistor descharge the port. 1M is very high, i use it to not influence the A0 port.

        Here in this case i can not PULLUP because the Pixels will light all full from the +5V.

        But for Buttons i’m allways using PULLUP, no need of 10kohm and port is not rising up

        because he is allready at +5v :-)

        You don’t have to change the code for this, i hope other readers understand what i mean.

        Ok i hade no problems till now with the NeoPixel -lIbrary, but i also try the FastLED, it use

        around 1kb more memory but else no relevant changes.

        Ok Hans have a nice weekend, cheers de Daniel 72

        Reply

        Daniel



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