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Looking for help co...
 
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Looking for help combining Meteor Rain Sketch with another pattern

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 Kip
(@kip)
Active Member
Joined: 2 years ago
Posts: 11
Topic starter  

Hello all! I've been a long time lurker but this my first time posting, so I'll apologize in advance if I miss a protocol. 

Before I continue, I have to say a big THANK YOU to Hans for all of your unknowing help you've given to me over the past 2 years! I'm skilled in electronic work and circuit building, but coding is a hard beast to tame, but your aid to others has been a GREAT help to me!! 

OK.... on to my question. This post will come with several useful tested LED sketch patterns that should be useful as well as a "thank you" sketch that I'll share whether I can be helped or not!

I'm trying to come up with a celebration sketch for a project I'm working on. I'm using WS2812B's with a Seeeduino XIAO (which I LOVE!) and a IR sensor for a trigger. When the IR sensor is triggered, I'd like to have the Meteor Rain pattern run, but as the tail is fading, run what I call TwikleFoxFire afterwards so it looks like embers are burning in it's wake. The whole thing only needs to run for 4-5 seconds then turn off. I'll put the sketches below.....

This is the Meteor Rain sketch I'm using....

#include "FastLED.h"
#define NUM_LEDS 300
CRGB leds[NUM_LEDS];
#define PIN 9

void setup()
{
  FastLED.addLeds<WS2811, PIN, GRB>(leds, NUM_LEDS).setCorrection( TypicalLEDStrip );
}

void loop() {


    meteorRain(250, 60, 0, 5, 85, true, 0);

}
//Starts at lowest number LED and goes to highest
void meteorRain(byte red, byte green, byte blue, byte meteorSize, byte meteorTrailDecay, boolean meteorRandomDecay, int SpeedDelay) {  
  setAll(0,0,0);
 
  for(int i = 0; i < NUM_LEDS; i++) {
   
    // fade brightness all LEDs one step
    for(int j=0; j<NUM_LEDS; j++) {
      if( (!meteorRandomDecay) || (random(10)>5) ) {
        fadeToBlack(j, meteorTrailDecay );        
      }
    }
   
    // draw meteor
    for(int j = 0; j < meteorSize; j++) {
      if( ( i-j <NUM_LEDS) && (i-j>=0) ) {
        setPixel(i-j, red, green, blue);
      }
    }
   
    FastLED.show();
    delay(SpeedDelay);
  }
  
  }
  void fadeToBlack(int ledNo, byte fadeValue) {
  // FastLED
   leds[ledNo].fadeToBlackBy( fadeValue ); 
}


void setPixel(int Pixel, byte red, byte green, byte blue) {
   // FastLED
   leds[Pixel].r = red;
   leds[Pixel].g = green;
   leds[Pixel].b = blue;
}

void setAll(byte red, byte green, byte blue) {
  for(int i = 0; i < NUM_LEDS; i++ ) {
    setPixel(i, red, green, blue);
  }
 FastLED.show();
}

 

Here is the TwinkleFoxFire sketch I'd like to run at the tail end. I stripped it down as much as I could from the original TwinkleFox code.

#include "FastLED.h"

#if defined(FASTLED_VERSION) && (FASTLED_VERSION < 3001000)
#warning "Requires FastLED 3.1 or later; check github for latest code."
#endif


#define NUM_LEDS      300
#define DATA_PIN        9


CRGBArray<NUM_LEDS> leds;

// Overall twinkle speed.
// 0 (VERY slow) to 8 (VERY fast).  
// 4, 5, and 6 are recommended, default is 4.
#define TWINKLE_SPEED 7

// Overall twinkle density.
// 0 (NONE lit) to 8 (ALL lit at once).  
// Default is 5.
#define TWINKLE_DENSITY 6

// How often to change color palettes.
#define SECONDS_PER_PALETTE  10
// Also: toward the bottom of the file is an array 
// called "ActivePaletteList" which controls which color
// palettes are used; you can add or remove color palettes
// from there freely.

// Background color for 'unlit' pixels
// Can be set to CRGB::Black if desired.
CRGB gBackgroundColor = CRGB::Black; 
// Example of dim incandescent fairy light background color
// CRGB gBackgroundColor = CRGB(CRGB::FairyLight).nscale8_video(16);

// If AUTO_SELECT_BACKGROUND_COLOR is set to 1,
// then for any palette where the first two entries 
// are the same, a dimmed version of that color will
// automatically be used as the background color.
#define AUTO_SELECT_BACKGROUND_COLOR 0

// If COOL_LIKE_INCANDESCENT is set to 1, colors will 
// fade out slighted 'reddened', similar to how
// incandescent bulbs change color as they get dim down.
#define COOL_LIKE_INCANDESCENT 1


CRGBPalette16 gCurrentPalette;
CRGBPalette16 gTargetPalette;

void setup() {
  delay( 3000 ); //safety startup delay
//  FastLED.setMaxPowerInVoltsAndMilliamps( VOLTS, MAX_MA);
  //FastLED.addLeds<LED_TYPE,DATA_PIN,COLOR_ORDER>(leds, NUM_LEDS)
   // .setCorrection(TypicalLEDStrip);
FastLED.addLeds<WS2811, DATA_PIN, GRB>(leds, NUM_LEDS).setCorrection( TypicalLEDStrip );

  chooseNextColorPalette(gTargetPalette);
}


void loop()
{
  EVERY_N_SECONDS( SECONDS_PER_PALETTE ) { 
    chooseNextColorPalette( gTargetPalette ); 
  }
  
  EVERY_N_MILLISECONDS( 10 ) {
    nblendPaletteTowardPalette( gCurrentPalette, gTargetPalette, 10);
  }
    drawTwinkles( leds);
  FastLED.show();
}

//  This function loops over each pixel, calculates the 
//  adjusted 'clock' that this pixel should use, and calls 
//  "CalculateOneTwinkle" on each pixel.  It then displays
//  either the twinkle color of the background color, 
//  whichever is brighter.
void drawTwinkles( CRGBSet& L)
{
  // "PRNG16" is the pseudorandom number generator
  // It MUST be reset to the same starting value each time
  // this function is called, so that the sequence of 'random'
  // numbers that it generates is (paradoxically) stable.
  uint16_t PRNG16 = 11337;
  
  uint32_t clock32 = millis();

  // Set up the background color, "bg".
  // if AUTO_SELECT_BACKGROUND_COLOR == 1, and the first two colors of
  // the current palette are identical, then a deeply faded version of
  // that color is used for the background color
  CRGB bg;
  if( (AUTO_SELECT_BACKGROUND_COLOR == 1) &&
      (gCurrentPalette[0] == gCurrentPalette[1] )) {
    bg = gCurrentPalette[0];
    uint8_t bglight = bg.getAverageLight();
    if( bglight > 64) {
      bg.nscale8_video( 16); // very bright, so scale to 1/16th
    } else if( bglight > 16) {
      bg.nscale8_video( 64); // not that bright, so scale to 1/4th
    } else {
      bg.nscale8_video( 86); // dim, scale to 1/3rd.
    }
  } else {
    bg = gBackgroundColor; // just use the explicitly defined background color
  }

  uint8_t backgroundBrightness = bg.getAverageLight();
  
  for( CRGB& pixel: L) {
    PRNG16 = (uint16_t)(PRNG16 * 2053) + 1384; // next 'random' number
    uint16_t myclockoffset16= PRNG16; // use that number as clock offset
    PRNG16 = (uint16_t)(PRNG16 * 2053) + 1384; // next 'random' number
    // use that number as clock speed adjustment factor (in 8ths, from 8/8ths to 23/8ths)
    uint8_t myspeedmultiplierQ5_3 =  ((((PRNG16 & 0xFF)>>4) + (PRNG16 & 0x0F)) & 0x0F) + 0x08;
    uint32_t myclock30 = (uint32_t)((clock32 * myspeedmultiplierQ5_3) >> 3) + myclockoffset16;
    uint8_t  myunique8 = PRNG16 >> 8; // get 'salt' value for this pixel

    // We now have the adjusted 'clock' for this pixel, now we call
    // the function that computes what color the pixel should be based
    // on the "brightness = f( time )" idea.
    CRGB c = computeOneTwinkle( myclock30, myunique8);

    uint8_t cbright = c.getAverageLight();
    int16_t deltabright = cbright - backgroundBrightness;
    if( deltabright >= 32 || (!bg)) {
      // If the new pixel is significantly brighter than the background color, 
      // use the new color.
      pixel = c;
    } else if( deltabright > 0 ) {
      // If the new pixel is just slightly brighter than the background color,
      // mix a blend of the new color and the background color
      pixel = blend( bg, c, deltabright * 8);
    } else { 
      // if the new pixel is not at all brighter than the background color,
      // just use the background color.
      pixel = bg;
    }
  }
}


//  This function takes a time in pseudo-milliseconds,
//  figures out brightness = f( time ), and also hue = f( time )
//  The 'low digits' of the millisecond time are used as 
//  input to the brightness wave function.  
//  The 'high digits' are used to select a color, so that the color
//  does not change over the course of the fade-in, fade-out
//  of one cycle of the brightness wave function.
//  The 'high digits' are also used to determine whether this pixel
//  should light at all during this cycle, based on the TWINKLE_DENSITY.
CRGB computeOneTwinkle( uint32_t ms, uint8_t salt)
{
  uint16_t ticks = ms >> (8-TWINKLE_SPEED);
  uint8_t fastcycle8 = ticks;
  uint16_t slowcycle16 = (ticks >> 8) + salt;
  slowcycle16 += sin8( slowcycle16);
  slowcycle16 =  (slowcycle16 * 2053) + 1384;
  uint8_t slowcycle8 = (slowcycle16 & 0xFF) + (slowcycle16 >> 8);
  
  uint8_t bright = 0;
  if( ((slowcycle8 & 0x0E)/2) < TWINKLE_DENSITY) {
    bright = attackDecayWave8( fastcycle8);
  }

  uint8_t hue = slowcycle8 - salt;
  CRGB c;
  if( bright > 0) {
    c = ColorFromPalette( gCurrentPalette, hue, bright, NOBLEND);
    if( COOL_LIKE_INCANDESCENT == 1 ) {
      coolLikeIncandescent( c, fastcycle8);
    }
  } else {
    c = CRGB::Black;
  }
  return c;
}


// This function is like 'triwave8', which produces a 
// symmetrical up-and-down triangle sawtooth waveform, except that this
// function produces a triangle wave with a faster attack and a slower decay:
//
//     / \ 
//    /     \ 
//   /         \ 
//  /             \ 
//

uint8_t attackDecayWave8( uint8_t i)
{
  if( i < 86) {
    return i * 3;
  } else {
    i -= 86;
    return 255 - (i + (i/2));
  }
}

// This function takes a pixel, and if its in the 'fading down'
// part of the cycle, it adjusts the color a little bit like the 
// way that incandescent bulbs fade toward 'red' as they dim.
void coolLikeIncandescent( CRGB& c, uint8_t phase)
{
  if( phase < 128) return;

  uint8_t cooling = (phase - 128) >> 4;
  c.g = qsub8( c.g, cooling);
  c.b = qsub8( c.b, cooling * 2);
}

// A mostly red palette with green accents and white trim.
// "CRGB::Gray" is used as white to keep the brightness more uniform.
const TProgmemRGBPalette16 RedOrangeWhite_p FL_PROGMEM =
{  CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, 
   CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, 
   CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, CRGB::Yellow, CRGB::Grey, 
   CRGB::Orange, CRGB::Orange, CRGB::Orange, CRGB::Orange };


// Add or remove palette names from this list to control which color
// palettes are used, and in what order.
const TProgmemRGBPalette16* ActivePaletteList[] = {
  &RedOrangeWhite_p,
 
};


// Advance to the next color palette in the list (above).
void chooseNextColorPalette( CRGBPalette16& pal)
{
  const uint8_t numberOfPalettes = sizeof(ActivePaletteList) / sizeof(ActivePaletteList[0]);
  static uint8_t whichPalette = -1; 
  whichPalette = addmod8( whichPalette, 1, numberOfPalettes);

  pal = *(ActivePaletteList[whichPalette]);
  };

 

...and here is the original TwinkleFox code. If the TwinkleFoxFire can be streamlined anymore that would be wonderful also!

#include "FastLED.h"

#if defined(FASTLED_VERSION) && (FASTLED_VERSION < 3001000)
#warning "Requires FastLED 3.1 or later; check github for latest code."
#endif


#define NUM_LEDS      300
#define DATA_PIN        9


//  TwinkleFOX: Twinkling 'holiday' lights that fade in and out.
//  Colors are chosen from a palette; a few palettes are provided.
//
//  This December 2015 implementation improves on the December 2014 version
//  in several ways:
//  - smoother fading, compatible with any colors and any palettes
//  - easier control of twinkle speed and twinkle density
//  - supports an optional 'background color'
//  - takes even less RAM: zero RAM overhead per pixel
//  - illustrates a couple of interesting techniques (uh oh...)
//
//  The idea behind this (new) implementation is that there's one
//  basic, repeating pattern that each pixel follows like a waveform:
//  The brightness rises from 0..255 and then falls back down to 0.
//  The brightness at any given point in time can be determined as
//  as a function of time, for example:
//    brightness = sine( time ); // a sine wave of brightness over time
//
//  So the way this implementation works is that every pixel follows
//  the exact same wave function over time.  In this particular case,
//  I chose a sawtooth triangle wave (triwave8) rather than a sine wave,
//  but the idea is the same: brightness = triwave8( time ).  
//  
//  Of course, if all the pixels used the exact same wave form, and 
//  if they all used the exact same 'clock' for their 'time base', all
//  the pixels would brighten and dim at once -- which does not look
//  like twinkling at all.
//
//  So to achieve random-looking twinkling, each pixel is given a 
//  slightly different 'clock' signal.  Some of the clocks run faster, 
//  some run slower, and each 'clock' also has a random offset from zero.
//  The net result is that the 'clocks' for all the pixels are always out 
//  of sync from each other, producing a nice random distribution
//  of twinkles.
//
//  The 'clock speed adjustment' and 'time offset' for each pixel
//  are generated randomly.  One (normal) approach to implementing that
//  would be to randomly generate the clock parameters for each pixel 
//  at startup, and store them in some arrays.  However, that consumes
//  a great deal of precious RAM, and it turns out to be totally
//  unnessary!  If the random number generate is 'seeded' with the
//  same starting value every time, it will generate the same sequence
//  of values every time.  So the clock adjustment parameters for each
//  pixel are 'stored' in a pseudo-random number generator!  The PRNG 
//  is reset, and then the first numbers out of it are the clock 
//  adjustment parameters for the first pixel, the second numbers out
//  of it are the parameters for the second pixel, and so on.
//  In this way, we can 'store' a stable sequence of thousands of
//  random clock adjustment parameters in literally two bytes of RAM.
//
//  There's a little bit of fixed-point math involved in applying the
//  clock speed adjustments, which are expressed in eighths.  Each pixel's
//  clock speed ranges from 8/8ths of the system clock (i.e. 1x) to
//  23/8ths of the system clock (i.e. nearly 3x).
//
//  On a basic Arduino Uno or Leonardo, this code can twinkle 300+ pixels
//  smoothly at over 50 updates per seond.
//
//  -Mark Kriegsman, December 2015

CRGBArray<NUM_LEDS> leds;

// Overall twinkle speed.
// 0 (VERY slow) to 8 (VERY fast).  
// 4, 5, and 6 are recommended, default is 4.
#define TWINKLE_SPEED 7

// Overall twinkle density.
// 0 (NONE lit) to 8 (ALL lit at once).  
// Default is 5.
#define TWINKLE_DENSITY 6

// How often to change color palettes.
#define SECONDS_PER_PALETTE  10
// Also: toward the bottom of the file is an array 
// called "ActivePaletteList" which controls which color
// palettes are used; you can add or remove color palettes
// from there freely.

// Background color for 'unlit' pixels
// Can be set to CRGB::Black if desired.
CRGB gBackgroundColor = CRGB::Black; 
// Example of dim incandescent fairy light background color
// CRGB gBackgroundColor = CRGB(CRGB::FairyLight).nscale8_video(16);

// If AUTO_SELECT_BACKGROUND_COLOR is set to 1,
// then for any palette where the first two entries 
// are the same, a dimmed version of that color will
// automatically be used as the background color.
#define AUTO_SELECT_BACKGROUND_COLOR 0

// If COOL_LIKE_INCANDESCENT is set to 1, colors will 
// fade out slighted 'reddened', similar to how
// incandescent bulbs change color as they get dim down.
#define COOL_LIKE_INCANDESCENT 1


CRGBPalette16 gCurrentPalette;
CRGBPalette16 gTargetPalette;

void setup() {
  delay( 3000 ); //safety startup delay
//  FastLED.setMaxPowerInVoltsAndMilliamps( VOLTS, MAX_MA);
  //FastLED.addLeds<LED_TYPE,DATA_PIN,COLOR_ORDER>(leds, NUM_LEDS)
   // .setCorrection(TypicalLEDStrip);
FastLED.addLeds<WS2811, DATA_PIN, GRB>(leds, NUM_LEDS).setCorrection( TypicalLEDStrip );

  chooseNextColorPalette(gTargetPalette);
}


void loop()
{
  EVERY_N_SECONDS( SECONDS_PER_PALETTE ) { 
    chooseNextColorPalette( gTargetPalette ); 
  }
  
  EVERY_N_MILLISECONDS( 10 ) {
    nblendPaletteTowardPalette( gCurrentPalette, gTargetPalette, 12);
  }
    drawTwinkles( leds);
  FastLED.show();
}



//  This function loops over each pixel, calculates the 
//  adjusted 'clock' that this pixel should use, and calls 
//  "CalculateOneTwinkle" on each pixel.  It then displays
//  either the twinkle color of the background color, 
//  whichever is brighter.
void drawTwinkles( CRGBSet& L)
{
  // "PRNG16" is the pseudorandom number generator
  // It MUST be reset to the same starting value each time
  // this function is called, so that the sequence of 'random'
  // numbers that it generates is (paradoxically) stable.
  uint16_t PRNG16 = 11337;
  
  uint32_t clock32 = millis();

  // Set up the background color, "bg".
  // if AUTO_SELECT_BACKGROUND_COLOR == 1, and the first two colors of
  // the current palette are identical, then a deeply faded version of
  // that color is used for the background color
  CRGB bg;
  if( (AUTO_SELECT_BACKGROUND_COLOR == 1) &&
      (gCurrentPalette[0] == gCurrentPalette[1] )) {
    bg = gCurrentPalette[0];
    uint8_t bglight = bg.getAverageLight();
    if( bglight > 64) {
      bg.nscale8_video( 16); // very bright, so scale to 1/16th
    } else if( bglight > 16) {
      bg.nscale8_video( 64); // not that bright, so scale to 1/4th
    } else {
      bg.nscale8_video( 86); // dim, scale to 1/3rd.
    }
  } else {
    bg = gBackgroundColor; // just use the explicitly defined background color
  }

  uint8_t backgroundBrightness = bg.getAverageLight();
  
  for( CRGB& pixel: L) {
    PRNG16 = (uint16_t)(PRNG16 * 2053) + 1384; // next 'random' number
    uint16_t myclockoffset16= PRNG16; // use that number as clock offset
    PRNG16 = (uint16_t)(PRNG16 * 2053) + 1384; // next 'random' number
    // use that number as clock speed adjustment factor (in 8ths, from 8/8ths to 23/8ths)
    uint8_t myspeedmultiplierQ5_3 =  ((((PRNG16 & 0xFF)>>4) + (PRNG16 & 0x0F)) & 0x0F) + 0x08;
    uint32_t myclock30 = (uint32_t)((clock32 * myspeedmultiplierQ5_3) >> 3) + myclockoffset16;
    uint8_t  myunique8 = PRNG16 >> 8; // get 'salt' value for this pixel

    // We now have the adjusted 'clock' for this pixel, now we call
    // the function that computes what color the pixel should be based
    // on the "brightness = f( time )" idea.
    CRGB c = computeOneTwinkle( myclock30, myunique8);

    uint8_t cbright = c.getAverageLight();
    int16_t deltabright = cbright - backgroundBrightness;
    if( deltabright >= 32 || (!bg)) {
      // If the new pixel is significantly brighter than the background color, 
      // use the new color.
      pixel = c;
    } else if( deltabright > 0 ) {
      // If the new pixel is just slightly brighter than the background color,
      // mix a blend of the new color and the background color
      pixel = blend( bg, c, deltabright * 8);
    } else { 
      // if the new pixel is not at all brighter than the background color,
      // just use the background color.
      pixel = bg;
    }
  }
}


//  This function takes a time in pseudo-milliseconds,
//  figures out brightness = f( time ), and also hue = f( time )
//  The 'low digits' of the millisecond time are used as 
//  input to the brightness wave function.  
//  The 'high digits' are used to select a color, so that the color
//  does not change over the course of the fade-in, fade-out
//  of one cycle of the brightness wave function.
//  The 'high digits' are also used to determine whether this pixel
//  should light at all during this cycle, based on the TWINKLE_DENSITY.
CRGB computeOneTwinkle( uint32_t ms, uint8_t salt)
{
  uint16_t ticks = ms >> (8-TWINKLE_SPEED);
  uint8_t fastcycle8 = ticks;
  uint16_t slowcycle16 = (ticks >> 8) + salt;
  slowcycle16 += sin8( slowcycle16);
  slowcycle16 =  (slowcycle16 * 2053) + 1384;
  uint8_t slowcycle8 = (slowcycle16 & 0xFF) + (slowcycle16 >> 8);
  
  uint8_t bright = 0;
  if( ((slowcycle8 & 0x0E)/2) < TWINKLE_DENSITY) {
    bright = attackDecayWave8( fastcycle8);
  }

  uint8_t hue = slowcycle8 - salt;
  CRGB c;
  if( bright > 0) {
    c = ColorFromPalette( gCurrentPalette, hue, bright, NOBLEND);
    if( COOL_LIKE_INCANDESCENT == 1 ) {
      coolLikeIncandescent( c, fastcycle8);
    }
  } else {
    c = CRGB::Black;
  }
  return c;
}


// This function is like 'triwave8', which produces a 
// symmetrical up-and-down triangle sawtooth waveform, except that this
// function produces a triangle wave with a faster attack and a slower decay:
//
//     / \ 
//    /     \ 
//   /         \ 
//  /             \ 
//

uint8_t attackDecayWave8( uint8_t i)
{
  if( i < 86) {
    return i * 3;
  } else {
    i -= 86;
    return 255 - (i + (i/2));
  }
}

// This function takes a pixel, and if its in the 'fading down'
// part of the cycle, it adjusts the color a little bit like the 
// way that incandescent bulbs fade toward 'red' as they dim.
void coolLikeIncandescent( CRGB& c, uint8_t phase)
{
  if( phase < 128) return;

  uint8_t cooling = (phase - 128) >> 4;
  c.g = qsub8( c.g, cooling);
  c.b = qsub8( c.b, cooling * 2);
}

// A mostly red palette with green accents and white trim.
// "CRGB::Gray" is used as white to keep the brightness more uniform.
const TProgmemRGBPalette16 RedGreenWhite_p FL_PROGMEM =
{  CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, 
   CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, 
   CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, CRGB::Gray, CRGB::Gray, 
   CRGB::Green, CRGB::Green, CRGB::Green, CRGB::Green };

// A mostly (dark) green palette with red berries.
#define Holly_Green 0x00580c
#define Holly_Red   0xB00402
const TProgmemRGBPalette16 Holly_p FL_PROGMEM =
{  Holly_Green, Holly_Green, Holly_Green, Holly_Green, 
   Holly_Green, Holly_Green, Holly_Green, Holly_Green, 
   Holly_Green, Holly_Green, Holly_Green, Holly_Green, 
   Holly_Green, Holly_Green, Holly_Green, Holly_Red 
};

// A red and white striped palette
// "CRGB::Gray" is used as white to keep the brightness more uniform.
const TProgmemRGBPalette16 RedWhite_p FL_PROGMEM =
{  CRGB::Red,  CRGB::Red,  CRGB::Red,  CRGB::Red, 
   CRGB::Gray, CRGB::Gray, CRGB::Gray, CRGB::Gray,
   CRGB::Red,  CRGB::Red,  CRGB::Red,  CRGB::Red, 
   CRGB::Gray, CRGB::Gray, CRGB::Gray, CRGB::Gray };

// A mostly blue palette with white accents.
// "CRGB::Gray" is used as white to keep the brightness more uniform.
const TProgmemRGBPalette16 BlueWhite_p FL_PROGMEM =
{  CRGB::Blue, CRGB::Blue, CRGB::Blue, CRGB::Blue, 
   CRGB::Blue, CRGB::Blue, CRGB::Blue, CRGB::Blue, 
   CRGB::Blue, CRGB::Blue, CRGB::Blue, CRGB::Blue, 
   CRGB::Blue, CRGB::Gray, CRGB::Gray, CRGB::Gray };

// A pure "fairy light" palette with some brightness variations
#define HALFFAIRY ((CRGB::FairyLight & 0xFEFEFE) / 2)
#define QUARTERFAIRY ((CRGB::FairyLight & 0xFCFCFC) / 4)
const TProgmemRGBPalette16 FairyLight_p FL_PROGMEM =
{  CRGB::FairyLight, CRGB::FairyLight, CRGB::FairyLight, CRGB::FairyLight, 
   HALFFAIRY,        HALFFAIRY,        CRGB::FairyLight, CRGB::FairyLight, 
   QUARTERFAIRY,     QUARTERFAIRY,     CRGB::FairyLight, CRGB::FairyLight, 
   CRGB::FairyLight, CRGB::FairyLight, CRGB::FairyLight, CRGB::FairyLight };

// A palette of soft snowflakes with the occasional bright one
const TProgmemRGBPalette16 Snow_p FL_PROGMEM =
{  0x304048, 0x304048, 0x304048, 0x304048,
   0x304048, 0x304048, 0x304048, 0x304048,
   0x304048, 0x304048, 0x304048, 0x304048,
   0x304048, 0x304048, 0x304048, 0xE0F0FF };

// A palette reminiscent of large 'old-school' C9-size tree lights
// in the five classic colors: red, orange, green, blue, and white.
#define C9_Red    0xB80400
#define C9_Orange 0x902C02
#define C9_Green  0x046002
#define C9_Blue   0x070758
#define C9_White  0x606820
const TProgmemRGBPalette16 RetroC9_p FL_PROGMEM =
{  C9_Red,    C9_Orange, C9_Red,    C9_Orange,
   C9_Orange, C9_Red,    C9_Orange, C9_Red,
   C9_Green,  C9_Green,  C9_Green,  C9_Green,
   C9_Blue,   C9_Blue,   C9_Blue,
   C9_White
};

// A cold, icy pale blue palette
#define Ice_Blue1 0x0C1040
#define Ice_Blue2 0x182080
#define Ice_Blue3 0x5080C0
const TProgmemRGBPalette16 Ice_p FL_PROGMEM =
{
  Ice_Blue1, Ice_Blue1, Ice_Blue1, Ice_Blue1,
  Ice_Blue1, Ice_Blue1, Ice_Blue1, Ice_Blue1,
  Ice_Blue1, Ice_Blue1, Ice_Blue1, Ice_Blue1,
  Ice_Blue2, Ice_Blue2, Ice_Blue2, Ice_Blue3
};


// Add or remove palette names from this list to control which color
// palettes are used, and in what order.
const TProgmemRGBPalette16* ActivePaletteList[] = {
  &RetroC9_p,
  &BlueWhite_p,
  &RainbowColors_p,
  &FairyLight_p,
  &RedGreenWhite_p,
  &PartyColors_p,
  &RedWhite_p,
  &Snow_p,
  &Holly_p,
  &Ice_p  
};


// Advance to the next color palette in the list (above).
void chooseNextColorPalette( CRGBPalette16& pal)
{
  const uint8_t numberOfPalettes = sizeof(ActivePaletteList) / sizeof(ActivePaletteList[0]);
  static uint8_t whichPalette = -1; 
  whichPalette = addmod8( whichPalette, 1, numberOfPalettes);

  pal = *(ActivePaletteList[whichPalette]);
}

 

So that my story! The only thing left to say is....."Help me Obi Wan. You're my only hope"!


ReplyQuote
 Hans
(@hans)
Noble Member Admin
Joined: 9 years ago
Posts: 2201
 

Hi Kip!

First of all: thank you very much for your kind words!
It's always nice to hear compliments like this - totally makes it worthwhile to keep doing this (which I actually enjoy).

Apologies that I'm not entirely sure what you mean.
So the Meteor Rain runs, and while it is decaying you want the twinkles to appear? Or do you want the decaying parts to "twinkle" ?
Or do you want them to appear once the Meteor Rain is "done" (easier)?

I know: sometimes it is hard to explain an effect to another person, and sometimes it is hard to read and imagine the desired effect 😉 


ReplyQuote
 Kip
(@kip)
Active Member
Joined: 2 years ago
Posts: 11
Topic starter  

Hi Hans,

 Thanks for the quick reply! I was thinking the TwikleFoxFire would start up after the Meteor Rain decays giving the effect that the meteor has left burning embers in it's wake. I tried to replace the "fade to black" command with the TwikleFoxFire code but that failed miserably! 

In the past, I was going to try putting the Fire code at the end but it doesn't look as nice on the 60 led/meter strips that I'm using.

 


ReplyQuote
 Hans
(@hans)
Noble Member Admin
Joined: 9 years ago
Posts: 2201
 

Hi Kip,

this will probably take some more time for me to look at. It may take a few days for me to respond - apologies for that, I do have another project waiting to be completed 😉 


ReplyQuote
 Kip
(@kip)
Active Member
Joined: 2 years ago
Posts: 11
Topic starter  

Hans,

No problem at all! I completely understand. I'm not even sure if it CAN be done. I've been trying for so long to find the right LED effect that is a good 5 second celebration pattern on a 60/meter strip and just haven't found it! I am still trying to wrap my head around understanding coding so ANY help you can give me, WHENEVER you can give it is appreciated! 🤠 


ReplyQuote


 Kip
(@kip)
Active Member
Joined: 2 years ago
Posts: 11
Topic starter  

Greetings Hans!

 I was wondering if you have a little brain space available to see if combining the above sketches is possible? 🙏🏾 I know you have a lot of irons in the fire! Thank you in advance! 


ReplyQuote
 Hans
(@hans)
Noble Member Admin
Joined: 9 years ago
Posts: 2201
 

Hi Kip,

Apologies for the late signs of life haha ... yeah, things are "challenging" at the moment. On top of that, trying to find work as well. 

So ... coming back to your question.
If I understood this right, you'd like to see the meteor rain, with some extra sparkles in it's trail. (by lack of better ways to explain this)

Obviously, I do get the meteor rain code, since I wrote it haha.

The TwinkleFoxFire however is more challenging - especially since I'd be reading (complex) code from others. Not to mention the interesting for loops used in the main function.

I haven't tested this, but this would be my approach (not the best route to take, since we're not full aware of all the details of the code and how they work);

I'd use the normal meteor rain, however, as the meteor is moving forward, I'd add the the twinkle effect in the tail LEDs.
Say the Meteor is at LED #10, then the tail is LEDs #0 - #9, which then can be used for the twinkle effect,
next the Meteor is at LED #11, then the tail is LEDs #0 - #10, which then can be used for the twinkle effect, etc.

For this experiment to work, we'd have to rewrite the "drawTwinkles" a little bit, so we can indicate how far the twinkles are allow to go.
I'd do this by adding a parameter, let's call that "maxLed".

So void drawTwinkles( CRGBSet& L) becomes void drawTwinkles( CRGBSet& L, int maxLed).

We will need to adjust the for-loop in that function to only loop through the leds that are allowed (0 to maxLeds).
Since the used loop is a less common loop (for all elements in array), we remodel this to a more conventional loop as well.

The function would look something like this;

void drawTwinkles( CRGBSet& L, int maxLeds)
{
  // "PRNG16" is the pseudorandom number generator
  // It MUST be reset to the same starting value each time
  // this function is called, so that the sequence of 'random'
  // numbers that it generates is (paradoxically) stable.
  uint16_t PRNG16 = 11337;
  
  uint32_t clock32 = millis();

  // Set up the background color, "bg".
  // if AUTO_SELECT_BACKGROUND_COLOR == 1, and the first two colors of
  // the current palette are identical, then a deeply faded version of
  // that color is used for the background color
  CRGB bg;
  if( (AUTO_SELECT_BACKGROUND_COLOR == 1) &&
      (gCurrentPalette[0] == gCurrentPalette[1] )) {
    bg = gCurrentPalette[0];
    uint8_t bglight = bg.getAverageLight();
    if( bglight > 64) {
      bg.nscale8_video( 16); // very bright, so scale to 1/16th
    } else if( bglight > 16) {
      bg.nscale8_video( 64); // not that bright, so scale to 1/4th
    } else {
      bg.nscale8_video( 86); // dim, scale to 1/3rd.
    }
  } else {
    bg = gBackgroundColor; // just use the explicitly defined background color
  }

  uint8_t backgroundBrightness = bg.getAverageLight();
  
  for(int i; i<maxLeds; i++) {     // <-- change this loop
     PRNG16 = (uint16_t)(PRNG16 * 2053) + 1384; // next 'random' number
    uint16_t myclockoffset16= PRNG16; // use that number as clock offset
    PRNG16 = (uint16_t)(PRNG16 * 2053) + 1384; // next 'random' number
    // use that number as clock speed adjustment factor (in 8ths, from 8/8ths to 23/8ths)
    uint8_t myspeedmultiplierQ5_3 =  ((((PRNG16 & 0xFF)>>4) + (PRNG16 & 0x0F)) & 0x0F) + 0x08;
    uint32_t myclock30 = (uint32_t)((clock32 * myspeedmultiplierQ5_3) >> 3) + myclockoffset16;
    uint8_t  myunique8 = PRNG16 >> 8; // get 'salt' value for this pixel

    // We now have the adjusted 'clock' for this pixel, now we call
    // the function that computes what color the pixel should be based
    // on the "brightness = f( time )" idea.
    CRGB c = computeOneTwinkle( myclock30, myunique8);

    uint8_t cbright = c.getAverageLight();
    int16_t deltabright = cbright - backgroundBrightness;
    if( deltabright >= 32 || (!bg)) {
      // If the new pixel is significantly brighter than the background color, 
      // use the new color.
      leds[i[ = c;  // <-- change this
    } else if( deltabright > 0 ) {
      // If the new pixel is just slightly brighter than the background color,
      // mix a blend of the new color and the background color
      leds[i[ = blend( bg, c, deltabright * 8);// <-- change this
    } else { 
      // if the new pixel is not at all brighter than the background color,
      // just use the background color.
      leds[i[ = bg;// <-- change this
    }
  }
}

 

So the next step would be adjusting the meteor rain function, to incorporate drawTwinkles. Something like this:

void meteorRain(byte red, byte green, byte blue, byte meteorSize, byte meteorTrailDecay, boolean meteorRandomDecay, int SpeedDelay) {
  setAll(0, 0, 0);

  for (int i = 0; i < NUM_LEDS; i++) {

    // fade brightness all LEDs one step
    for (int j = 0; j < NUM_LEDS; j++) {
      if ((!meteorRandomDecay) || (random(10) > 5)) {
        fadeToBlack(j, meteorTrailDecay);
      }
    }

    // draw meteor
    for (int j = 0; j < meteorSize; j++) {
      if ((i - j < NUM_LEDS) && (i - j >= 0)) {
        setPixel(i - j, red, green, blue);
      }
    }

    // draw twinkles up to led "i" (=tail)
    if( (i-meteorSize < NUM_LEDS) && ( i-meteorSize>=0) ) {
      drawTwinkles(leds, i-meteorSize);
    }

    FastLED.show();
    delay(SpeedDelay);
  }

}

 

As you can see, I "shielded" the drawTwinkles function, just to make sure maxLeds will not get out of range (less than zero or greater than NUM_LEDS).

void loop() {

  EVERY_N_SECONDS( SECONDS_PER_PALETTE ) { 
    chooseNextColorPalette( gTargetPalette ); 
  }
  
  EVERY_N_MILLISECONDS( 10 ) {
    nblendPaletteTowardPalette( gCurrentPalette, gTargetPalette, 12);
  }

  meteorRain(250, 60, 0, 5, 85, true, 0);
}

 

I'm not quite sure this will produce the desired effect, and we may want to try this as a second test, where I moved the two "EVERY_N_xyz" functions around:

void loop() {
  chooseNextColorPalette( gTargetPalette );
  meteorRain(250, 60, 0, 5, 85, true, 0);
}

void meteorRain(byte red, byte green, byte blue, byte meteorSize, byte meteorTrailDecay, boolean meteorRandomDecay, int SpeedDelay) {
  setAll(0, 0, 0);

  for (int i = 0; i < NUM_LEDS; i++) {

    // fade brightness all LEDs one step
    for (int j = 0; j < NUM_LEDS; j++) {
      if ((!meteorRandomDecay) || (random(10) > 5)) {
        fadeToBlack(j, meteorTrailDecay);
      }
    }

    // draw meteor
    for (int j = 0; j < meteorSize; j++) {
      if ((i - j < NUM_LEDS) && (i - j >= 0)) {
        setPixel(i - j, red, green, blue);
      }
    }

    // draw twinkles up to led "i" (=tail)
    if( (i-meteorSize < NUM_LEDS) && ( i-meteorSize>=0) ) {
      drawTwinkles(leds, i-meteorSize);
    }
    
    nblendPaletteTowardPalette( gCurrentPalette, gTargetPalette, 10);

    FastLED.show();
    delay(SpeedDelay);
  }

}

 

To avoid confusion, I glued everything together and will post it in the next message, to keep it separated from this.


Kip liked
ReplyQuote
 Hans
(@hans)
Noble Member Admin
Joined: 9 years ago
Posts: 2201
 

So everything combined could look like this.
Note that this is untested, since I do not have may hardware handy for testing (super small temporary home = no space to work and everything in boxes).
However it does compile and I suspect it will get us one step closer ... 😊 
I'm optimistic 😁 

Note: I have intentionally grabbed the original Twinkle code to keep thing as complete as possible without having to go through the nitty-gritty of the Twinkle code.
This can be optimized of course ... 😉 

Let me know how this goes ...

#include "FastLED.h"

#define NUM_LEDS 300
CRGB leds[NUM_LEDS];
#define DATA_PIN 9

// Overall twinkle speed.
// 0 (VERY slow) to 8 (VERY fast).  
// 4, 5, and 6 are recommended, default is 4.
#define TWINKLE_SPEED 7

// Overall twinkle density.
// 0 (NONE lit) to 8 (ALL lit at once).  
// Default is 5.
#define TWINKLE_DENSITY 6

// How often to change color palettes.
#define SECONDS_PER_PALETTE  10
// Also: toward the bottom of the file is an array 
// called "ActivePaletteList" which controls which color
// palettes are used; you can add or remove color palettes
// from there freely.

// Background color for 'unlit' pixels
// Can be set to CRGB::Black if desired.
CRGB gBackgroundColor = CRGB::Black; 
// Example of dim incandescent fairy light background color
// CRGB gBackgroundColor = CRGB(CRGB::FairyLight).nscale8_video(16);

// If AUTO_SELECT_BACKGROUND_COLOR is set to 1,
// then for any palette where the first two entries 
// are the same, a dimmed version of that color will
// automatically be used as the background color.
#define AUTO_SELECT_BACKGROUND_COLOR 0

// If COOL_LIKE_INCANDESCENT is set to 1, colors will 
// fade out slighted 'reddened', similar to how
// incandescent bulbs change color as they get dim down.
#define COOL_LIKE_INCANDESCENT 1


CRGBPalette16 gCurrentPalette;
CRGBPalette16 gTargetPalette;

void setup() {
  delay( 3000 ); //safety startup delay
//  FastLED.setMaxPowerInVoltsAndMilliamps( VOLTS, MAX_MA);
  //FastLED.addLeds<LED_TYPE,DATA_PIN,COLOR_ORDER>(leds, NUM_LEDS)
   // .setCorrection(TypicalLEDStrip);
FastLED.addLeds<WS2811, DATA_PIN, GRB>(leds, NUM_LEDS).setCorrection( TypicalLEDStrip );

  chooseNextColorPalette(gTargetPalette);
}


void loop()
{
  EVERY_N_SECONDS( SECONDS_PER_PALETTE ) { 
    chooseNextColorPalette( gTargetPalette ); 
  }
  
  EVERY_N_MILLISECONDS( 10 ) {
    nblendPaletteTowardPalette( gCurrentPalette, gTargetPalette, 12);
  }
    
  meteorRain(250, 60, 0, 5, 85, true, 0);
}

//Starts at lowest number LED and goes to highest
void meteorRain(byte red, byte green, byte blue, byte meteorSize, byte meteorTrailDecay, boolean meteorRandomDecay, int SpeedDelay) {  
  fill_solid( leds, NUM_LEDS, gBackgroundColor );
 
  for(int i = 0; i < NUM_LEDS; i++) {
   
    // fade brightness all LEDs one step
    for(int j=0; j<NUM_LEDS; j++) {
      if( (!meteorRandomDecay) || (random(10)>5) ) {
        leds[j].fadeToBlackBy( meteorTrailDecay );        
      }
    }
   
    // draw meteor
    for(int j = 0; j < meteorSize; j++) {
      if( ( i-j <NUM_LEDS) && (i-j>=0) ) {
        leds[i-j] = CRGB(red, green, blue);
      }
    }
   
    FastLED.show();
    delay(SpeedDelay);
  }  
}


//  This function loops over each pixel, calculates the 
//  adjusted 'clock' that this pixel should use, and calls 
//  "CalculateOneTwinkle" on each pixel.  It then displays
//  either the twinkle color of the background color, 
//  whichever is brighter.
void drawTwinkles( CRGBSet& L)
{
  // "PRNG16" is the pseudorandom number generator
  // It MUST be reset to the same starting value each time
  // this function is called, so that the sequence of 'random'
  // numbers that it generates is (paradoxically) stable.
  uint16_t PRNG16 = 11337;
  
  uint32_t clock32 = millis();

  // Set up the background color, "bg".
  // if AUTO_SELECT_BACKGROUND_COLOR == 1, and the first two colors of
  // the current palette are identical, then a deeply faded version of
  // that color is used for the background color
  CRGB bg;
  if( (AUTO_SELECT_BACKGROUND_COLOR == 1) &&
      (gCurrentPalette[0] == gCurrentPalette[1] )) {
    bg = gCurrentPalette[0];
    uint8_t bglight = bg.getAverageLight();
    if( bglight > 64) {
      bg.nscale8_video( 16); // very bright, so scale to 1/16th
    } else if( bglight > 16) {
      bg.nscale8_video( 64); // not that bright, so scale to 1/4th
    } else {
      bg.nscale8_video( 86); // dim, scale to 1/3rd.
    }
  } else {
    bg = gBackgroundColor; // just use the explicitly defined background color
  }

  uint8_t backgroundBrightness = bg.getAverageLight();
  
  for( CRGB& pixel: L) {
    PRNG16 = (uint16_t)(PRNG16 * 2053) + 1384; // next 'random' number
    uint16_t myclockoffset16= PRNG16; // use that number as clock offset
    PRNG16 = (uint16_t)(PRNG16 * 2053) + 1384; // next 'random' number
    // use that number as clock speed adjustment factor (in 8ths, from 8/8ths to 23/8ths)
    uint8_t myspeedmultiplierQ5_3 =  ((((PRNG16 & 0xFF)>>4) + (PRNG16 & 0x0F)) & 0x0F) + 0x08;
    uint32_t myclock30 = (uint32_t)((clock32 * myspeedmultiplierQ5_3) >> 3) + myclockoffset16;
    uint8_t  myunique8 = PRNG16 >> 8; // get 'salt' value for this pixel

    // We now have the adjusted 'clock' for this pixel, now we call
    // the function that computes what color the pixel should be based
    // on the "brightness = f( time )" idea.
    CRGB c = computeOneTwinkle( myclock30, myunique8);

    uint8_t cbright = c.getAverageLight();
    int16_t deltabright = cbright - backgroundBrightness;
    if( deltabright >= 32 || (!bg)) {
      // If the new pixel is significantly brighter than the background color, 
      // use the new color.
      pixel = c;
    } else if( deltabright > 0 ) {
      // If the new pixel is just slightly brighter than the background color,
      // mix a blend of the new color and the background color
      pixel = blend( bg, c, deltabright * 8);
    } else { 
      // if the new pixel is not at all brighter than the background color,
      // just use the background color.
      pixel = bg;
    }
  }
}


//  This function takes a time in pseudo-milliseconds,
//  figures out brightness = f( time ), and also hue = f( time )
//  The 'low digits' of the millisecond time are used as 
//  input to the brightness wave function.  
//  The 'high digits' are used to select a color, so that the color
//  does not change over the course of the fade-in, fade-out
//  of one cycle of the brightness wave function.
//  The 'high digits' are also used to determine whether this pixel
//  should light at all during this cycle, based on the TWINKLE_DENSITY.
CRGB computeOneTwinkle( uint32_t ms, uint8_t salt)
{
  uint16_t ticks = ms >> (8-TWINKLE_SPEED);
  uint8_t fastcycle8 = ticks;
  uint16_t slowcycle16 = (ticks >> 8) + salt;
  slowcycle16 += sin8( slowcycle16);
  slowcycle16 =  (slowcycle16 * 2053) + 1384;
  uint8_t slowcycle8 = (slowcycle16 & 0xFF) + (slowcycle16 >> 8);
  
  uint8_t bright = 0;
  if( ((slowcycle8 & 0x0E)/2) < TWINKLE_DENSITY) {
    bright = attackDecayWave8( fastcycle8);
  }

  uint8_t hue = slowcycle8 - salt;
  CRGB c;
  if( bright > 0) {
    c = ColorFromPalette( gCurrentPalette, hue, bright, NOBLEND);
    if( COOL_LIKE_INCANDESCENT == 1 ) {
      coolLikeIncandescent( c, fastcycle8);
    }
  } else {
    c = CRGB::Black;
  }
  return c;
}


// This function is like 'triwave8', which produces a 
// symmetrical up-and-down triangle sawtooth waveform, except that this
// function produces a triangle wave with a faster attack and a slower decay:
//
//     / \ 
//    /     \ 
//   /         \ 
//  /             \ 
//

uint8_t attackDecayWave8( uint8_t i)
{
  if( i < 86) {
    return i * 3;
  } else {
    i -= 86;
    return 255 - (i + (i/2));
  }
}

// This function takes a pixel, and if its in the 'fading down'
// part of the cycle, it adjusts the color a little bit like the 
// way that incandescent bulbs fade toward 'red' as they dim.
void coolLikeIncandescent( CRGB& c, uint8_t phase)
{
  if( phase < 128) return;

  uint8_t cooling = (phase - 128) >> 4;
  c.g = qsub8( c.g, cooling);
  c.b = qsub8( c.b, cooling * 2);
}

// A mostly red palette with green accents and white trim.
// "CRGB::Gray" is used as white to keep the brightness more uniform.
const TProgmemRGBPalette16 RedGreenWhite_p FL_PROGMEM =
{  CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, 
   CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, 
   CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, CRGB::Gray, CRGB::Gray, 
   CRGB::Green, CRGB::Green, CRGB::Green, CRGB::Green };

// A mostly (dark) green palette with red berries.
#define Holly_Green 0x00580c
#define Holly_Red   0xB00402
const TProgmemRGBPalette16 Holly_p FL_PROGMEM =
{  Holly_Green, Holly_Green, Holly_Green, Holly_Green, 
   Holly_Green, Holly_Green, Holly_Green, Holly_Green, 
   Holly_Green, Holly_Green, Holly_Green, Holly_Green, 
   Holly_Green, Holly_Green, Holly_Green, Holly_Red 
};

// A red and white striped palette
// "CRGB::Gray" is used as white to keep the brightness more uniform.
const TProgmemRGBPalette16 RedWhite_p FL_PROGMEM =
{  CRGB::Red,  CRGB::Red,  CRGB::Red,  CRGB::Red, 
   CRGB::Gray, CRGB::Gray, CRGB::Gray, CRGB::Gray,
   CRGB::Red,  CRGB::Red,  CRGB::Red,  CRGB::Red, 
   CRGB::Gray, CRGB::Gray, CRGB::Gray, CRGB::Gray };

// A mostly blue palette with white accents.
// "CRGB::Gray" is used as white to keep the brightness more uniform.
const TProgmemRGBPalette16 BlueWhite_p FL_PROGMEM =
{  CRGB::Blue, CRGB::Blue, CRGB::Blue, CRGB::Blue, 
   CRGB::Blue, CRGB::Blue, CRGB::Blue, CRGB::Blue, 
   CRGB::Blue, CRGB::Blue, CRGB::Blue, CRGB::Blue, 
   CRGB::Blue, CRGB::Gray, CRGB::Gray, CRGB::Gray };

// A pure "fairy light" palette with some brightness variations
#define HALFFAIRY ((CRGB::FairyLight & 0xFEFEFE) / 2)
#define QUARTERFAIRY ((CRGB::FairyLight & 0xFCFCFC) / 4)
const TProgmemRGBPalette16 FairyLight_p FL_PROGMEM =
{  CRGB::FairyLight, CRGB::FairyLight, CRGB::FairyLight, CRGB::FairyLight, 
   HALFFAIRY,        HALFFAIRY,        CRGB::FairyLight, CRGB::FairyLight, 
   QUARTERFAIRY,     QUARTERFAIRY,     CRGB::FairyLight, CRGB::FairyLight, 
   CRGB::FairyLight, CRGB::FairyLight, CRGB::FairyLight, CRGB::FairyLight };

// A palette of soft snowflakes with the occasional bright one
const TProgmemRGBPalette16 Snow_p FL_PROGMEM =
{  0x304048, 0x304048, 0x304048, 0x304048,
   0x304048, 0x304048, 0x304048, 0x304048,
   0x304048, 0x304048, 0x304048, 0x304048,
   0x304048, 0x304048, 0x304048, 0xE0F0FF };

// A palette reminiscent of large 'old-school' C9-size tree lights
// in the five classic colors: red, orange, green, blue, and white.
#define C9_Red    0xB80400
#define C9_Orange 0x902C02
#define C9_Green  0x046002
#define C9_Blue   0x070758
#define C9_White  0x606820
const TProgmemRGBPalette16 RetroC9_p FL_PROGMEM =
{  C9_Red,    C9_Orange, C9_Red,    C9_Orange,
   C9_Orange, C9_Red,    C9_Orange, C9_Red,
   C9_Green,  C9_Green,  C9_Green,  C9_Green,
   C9_Blue,   C9_Blue,   C9_Blue,
   C9_White
};

// A cold, icy pale blue palette
#define Ice_Blue1 0x0C1040
#define Ice_Blue2 0x182080
#define Ice_Blue3 0x5080C0
const TProgmemRGBPalette16 Ice_p FL_PROGMEM =
{
  Ice_Blue1, Ice_Blue1, Ice_Blue1, Ice_Blue1,
  Ice_Blue1, Ice_Blue1, Ice_Blue1, Ice_Blue1,
  Ice_Blue1, Ice_Blue1, Ice_Blue1, Ice_Blue1,
  Ice_Blue2, Ice_Blue2, Ice_Blue2, Ice_Blue3
};


// Add or remove palette names from this list to control which color
// palettes are used, and in what order.
const TProgmemRGBPalette16* ActivePaletteList[] = {
  &RetroC9_p,
  &BlueWhite_p,
  &RainbowColors_p,
  &FairyLight_p,
  &RedGreenWhite_p,
  &PartyColors_p,
  &RedWhite_p,
  &Snow_p,
  &Holly_p,
  &Ice_p  
};


// Advance to the next color palette in the list (above).
void chooseNextColorPalette( CRGBPalette16& pal)
{
  const uint8_t numberOfPalettes = sizeof(ActivePaletteList) / sizeof(ActivePaletteList[0]);
  static uint8_t whichPalette = -1; 
  whichPalette = addmod8( whichPalette, 1, numberOfPalettes);

  pal = *(ActivePaletteList[whichPalette]);
}

 

 


ReplyQuote
 Kip
(@kip)
Active Member
Joined: 2 years ago
Posts: 11
Topic starter  

Hans my man! Thanks for lending me some of your awesome brainpower! Your second combined code was missing the tweaks from the post before and some commands needed for the Meteor Rain. After I added them, it wouldn't compile. My suspicion is it wasn't happy with something in the drawTwinkles area. What I patched together is below.

 

Kip

#include "FastLED.h"

#define NUM_LEDS 300
CRGB leds[NUM_LEDS];
#define DATA_PIN 9



// Overall twinkle speed.
// 0 (VERY slow) to 8 (VERY fast).  
// 4, 5, and 6 are recommended, default is 4.
#define TWINKLE_SPEED 7

// Overall twinkle density.
// 0 (NONE lit) to 8 (ALL lit at once).  
// Default is 5.
#define TWINKLE_DENSITY 6

// How often to change color palettes.
#define SECONDS_PER_PALETTE  10
// Also: toward the bottom of the file is an array 
// called "ActivePaletteList" which controls which color
// palettes are used; you can add or remove color palettes
// from there freely.

// Background color for 'unlit' pixels
// Can be set to CRGB::Black if desired.
CRGB gBackgroundColor = CRGB::Black; 
// Example of dim incandescent fairy light background color
// CRGB gBackgroundColor = CRGB(CRGB::FairyLight).nscale8_video(16);

// If AUTO_SELECT_BACKGROUND_COLOR is set to 1,
// then for any palette where the first two entries 
// are the same, a dimmed version of that color will
// automatically be used as the background color.
#define AUTO_SELECT_BACKGROUND_COLOR 0

// If COOL_LIKE_INCANDESCENT is set to 1, colors will 
// fade out slighted 'reddened', similar to how
// incandescent bulbs change color as they get dim down.
#define COOL_LIKE_INCANDESCENT 1


CRGBPalette16 gCurrentPalette;
CRGBPalette16 gTargetPalette;

void setup() {
  delay( 3000 ); //safety startup delay
//  FastLED.setMaxPowerInVoltsAndMilliamps( VOLTS, MAX_MA);
  //FastLED.addLeds<LED_TYPE,DATA_PIN,COLOR_ORDER>(leds, NUM_LEDS)
   // .setCorrection(TypicalLEDStrip);
FastLED.addLeds<WS2811, DATA_PIN, GRB>(leds, NUM_LEDS).setCorrection( TypicalLEDStrip );

  
}


void loop() {
  chooseNextColorPalette( gTargetPalette );
  meteorRain(250, 60, 0, 5, 85, true, 0);
}

void meteorRain(byte red, byte green, byte blue, byte meteorSize, byte meteorTrailDecay, boolean meteorRandomDecay, int SpeedDelay) {
  setAll(0, 0, 0);

  for (int i = 0; i < NUM_LEDS; i++) {

    // fade brightness all LEDs one step
    for (int j = 0; j < NUM_LEDS; j++) {
      if ((!meteorRandomDecay) || (random(10) > 5)) {
        fadeToBlack(j, meteorTrailDecay);
      }
    }

    // draw meteor
    for (int j = 0; j < meteorSize; j++) {
      if ((i - j < NUM_LEDS) && (i - j >= 0)) {
        setPixel(i - j, red, green, blue);
      }
    }

    // draw twinkles up to led "i" (=tail)
    if( (i-meteorSize < NUM_LEDS) && (i-meteorSize>=0)) {
      drawTwinkles(leds,i-meteorSize);
    }
    
    nblendPaletteTowardPalette( gCurrentPalette, gTargetPalette, 10);

    FastLED.show();
    delay(SpeedDelay);
  }

}



void drawTwinkles( CRGBSet& L,int maxLeds)
{
  // "PRNG16" is the pseudorandom number generator
  // It MUST be reset to the same starting value each time
  // this function is called, so that the sequence of 'random'
  // numbers that it generates is (paradoxically) stable.
  uint16_t PRNG16 = 11337;
  
  uint32_t clock32 = millis();

  // Set up the background color, "bg".
  // if AUTO_SELECT_BACKGROUND_COLOR == 1, and the first two colors of
  // the current palette are identical, then a deeply faded version of
  // that color is used for the background color
  CRGB bg;
  if( (AUTO_SELECT_BACKGROUND_COLOR == 1) &&
      (gCurrentPalette[0] == gCurrentPalette[1] )) {
    bg = gCurrentPalette[0];
    uint8_t bglight = bg.getAverageLight();
    if( bglight > 64) {
      bg.nscale8_video( 16); // very bright, so scale to 1/16th
    } else if( bglight > 16) {
      bg.nscale8_video( 64); // not that bright, so scale to 1/4th
    } else {
      bg.nscale8_video( 86); // dim, scale to 1/3rd.
    }
  } else {
    bg = gBackgroundColor; // just use the explicitly defined background color
  }

  uint8_t backgroundBrightness = bg.getAverageLight();
  
  for(int i; i<maxLeds; i++) {     // <-- change this loop
     PRNG16 = (uint16_t)(PRNG16 * 2053) + 1384; // next 'random' number
    uint16_t myclockoffset16= PRNG16; // use that number as clock offset
    PRNG16 = (uint16_t)(PRNG16 * 2053) + 1384; // next 'random' number
    // use that number as clock speed adjustment factor (in 8ths, from 8/8ths to 23/8ths)
    uint8_t myspeedmultiplierQ5_3 =  ((((PRNG16 & 0xFF)>>4) + (PRNG16 & 0x0F)) & 0x0F) + 0x08;
    uint32_t myclock30 = (uint32_t)((clock32 * myspeedmultiplierQ5_3) >> 3) + myclockoffset16;
    uint8_t  myunique8 = PRNG16 >> 8; // get 'salt' value for this pixel

    // We now have the adjusted 'clock' for this pixel, now we call
    // the function that computes what color the pixel should be based
    // on the "brightness = f( time )" idea.
    CRGB c = computeOneTwinkle( myclock30, myunique8);

    uint8_t cbright = c.getAverageLight();
    int16_t deltabright = cbright - backgroundBrightness;
    if( deltabright >= 32 || (!bg)) {
      // If the new pixel is significantly brighter than the background color, 
      // use the new color.
      leds[i[ = c;  // <-- change this
    } else if( deltabright > 0 ) {
      // If the new pixel is just slightly brighter than the background color,
      // mix a blend of the new color and the background color
      leds[i[ = blend( bg, c, deltabright * 8);// <-- change this
    } else { 
      // if the new pixel is not at all brighter than the background color,
      // just use the background color.
      leds[i[ = bg;// <-- change this
    }
  }
}

//  This function takes a time in pseudo-milliseconds,
//  figures out brightness = f( time ), and also hue = f( time )
//  The 'low digits' of the millisecond time are used as 
//  input to the brightness wave function.  
//  The 'high digits' are used to select a color, so that the color
//  does not change over the course of the fade-in, fade-out
//  of one cycle of the brightness wave function.
//  The 'high digits' are also used to determine whether this pixel
//  should light at all during this cycle, based on the TWINKLE_DENSITY.
CRGB computeOneTwinkle( uint32_t ms, uint8_t salt)
{
  uint16_t ticks = ms >> (8-TWINKLE_SPEED);
  uint8_t fastcycle8 = ticks;
  uint16_t slowcycle16 = (ticks >> 8) + salt;
  slowcycle16 += sin8( slowcycle16);
  slowcycle16 =  (slowcycle16 * 2053) + 1384;
  uint8_t slowcycle8 = (slowcycle16 & 0xFF) + (slowcycle16 >> 8);
  
  uint8_t bright = 0;
  if( ((slowcycle8 & 0x0E)/2) < TWINKLE_DENSITY) {
    bright = attackDecayWave8( fastcycle8);
  }

  uint8_t hue = slowcycle8 - salt;
  CRGB c;
  if( bright > 0) {
    c = ColorFromPalette( gCurrentPalette, hue, bright, NOBLEND);
    if( COOL_LIKE_INCANDESCENT == 1 ) {
      coolLikeIncandescent( c, fastcycle8);
    }
  } else {
    c = CRGB::Black;
  }
  return c;
}


// This function is like 'triwave8', which produces a 
// symmetrical up-and-down triangle sawtooth waveform, except that this
// function produces a triangle wave with a faster attack and a slower decay:
//
//     / \ 
//    /     \ 
//   /         \ 
//  /             \ 
//

uint8_t attackDecayWave8( uint8_t i)
{
  if( i < 86) {
    return i * 3;
  } else {
    i -= 86;
    return 255 - (i + (i/2));
  }
}

// This function takes a pixel, and if its in the 'fading down'
// part of the cycle, it adjusts the color a little bit like the 
// way that incandescent bulbs fade toward 'red' as they dim.
void coolLikeIncandescent( CRGB& c, uint8_t phase)
{
  if( phase < 128) return;

  uint8_t cooling = (phase - 128) >> 4;
  c.g = qsub8( c.g, cooling);
  c.b = qsub8( c.b, cooling * 2);
}

// A mostly red palette with green accents and white trim.
// "CRGB::Gray" is used as white to keep the brightness more uniform.
const TProgmemRGBPalette16 RedOrangeWhite_p FL_PROGMEM =
{  CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, 
   CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, 
   CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, CRGB::Yellow, CRGB::Grey, 
   CRGB::Orange, CRGB::Orange, CRGB::Orange, CRGB::Orange };


// Add or remove palette names from this list to control which color
// palettes are used, and in what order.
const TProgmemRGBPalette16* ActivePaletteList[] = {
  &RedOrangeWhite_p,
 
};


// Advance to the next color palette in the list (above).
void chooseNextColorPalette( CRGBPalette16& pal)
{
  const uint8_t numberOfPalettes = sizeof(ActivePaletteList) / sizeof(ActivePaletteList[0]);
  static uint8_t whichPalette = -1; 
  whichPalette = addmod8( whichPalette, 1, numberOfPalettes);

  pal = *(ActivePaletteList[whichPalette]);
  }

  void fadeToBlack(int ledNo, byte fadeValue) {
  // FastLED
   leds[ledNo].fadeToBlackBy( fadeValue ); 
}


void setPixel(int Pixel, byte red, byte green, byte blue) {
   // FastLED
   leds[Pixel].r = red;
   leds[Pixel].g = green;
   leds[Pixel].b = blue;
}

void setAll(byte red, byte green, byte blue) {
  for(int i = 0; i < NUM_LEDS; i++ ) {
    setPixel(i, red, green, blue);
  }
 FastLED.show();
}
  

ReplyQuote
 Kip
(@kip)
Active Member
Joined: 2 years ago
Posts: 11
Topic starter  

...actually I guess I DIDN'T need to throw this in for the Meteor rain portion to work!

void fadeToBlack(int ledNo, byte fadeValue) {
  // FastLED
   leds[ledNo].fadeToBlackBy( fadeValue ); 
}


void setPixel(int Pixel, byte red, byte green, byte blue) {
   // FastLED
   leds[Pixel].r = red;
   leds[Pixel].g = green;
   leds[Pixel].b = blue;
}

void setAll(byte red, byte green, byte blue) {
  for(int i = 0; i < NUM_LEDS; i++ ) {
    setPixel(i, red, green, blue);
  }
 FastLED.show();
}

ReplyQuote


 Hans
(@hans)
Noble Member Admin
Joined: 9 years ago
Posts: 2201
 

Awesome! So ... things are working as you had hoped for? 

As for these functions: They were originally written to make code easier to port between NeoPixel and FastLED. I have a strong preference for FastLED by the way (faster, more mature, more functions).

- So the old "fadeToBlack" function can now be called straight from the FastLED library, even per LED with "leds[ledNo].fadeToBlackBy( fadeValue );".
- Assigning a color to a LED is now easier as well: leds[ledno] = CRGB( red, green, blue ); .
- And SetAll can be done with one of the fill function build into FastLED: fill_solid( leds, NUM_LEDS, gBackgroundColor );

I am however confused why my code didn't work - it compiled just fine.
On the flip side: I'm glad you got it to work 😁 


ReplyQuote
 Kip
(@kip)
Active Member
Joined: 2 years ago
Posts: 11
Topic starter  

No it didn't work. 😪 Sorry I guess I wasn't clear enough. The code I shared in my last message had all the adjustments in it that were accidently left out but I couldn't get it to compile. It's telling me 'setpixel' was not declared in this scope.

void meteorRain(byte red, byte green, byte blue, byte meteorSize, byte meteorTrailDecay, boolean meteorRandomDecay, int SpeedDelay) {  
  fill_solid( leds, NUM_LEDS, gBackgroundColor );
 
  for(int i = 0; i < NUM_LEDS; i++) {
   
    // fade brightness all LEDs one step
    for(int j=0; j<NUM_LEDS; j++) {
      if( (!meteorRandomDecay) || (random(10)>5) ) {
        leds[j].fadeToBlackBy( meteorTrailDecay );        
      }
    }
   
    // draw meteor
    for (int j = 0; j < meteorSize; j++) {
      if ((i - j < NUM_LEDS) && (i - j >= 0)) {
        setPixel(i - j, red, green, blue);      <------ HERE
      }
    }

    // draw twinkles up to led "i" (=tail)
    if( (i-meteorSize < NUM_LEDS) && ( i-meteorSize>=0) ) {
      drawTwinkles(leds, i-meteorSize);
    }

    FastLED.show();
    delay(SpeedDelay);
  }

}

ReplyQuote
 Hans
(@hans)
Noble Member Admin
Joined: 9 years ago
Posts: 2201
 

No worries, let's rewind for a second 😁 

Did you try the code I posted in this comment?
Attached the INO sketch.
It compiles correctly in the Arduino IDE - what happens on your setup?

Sketch uses 5246 bytes (16%) of program storage space. Maximum is 32256 bytes.
Global variables use 1150 bytes (56%) of dynamic memory, leaving 898 bytes for local variables. Maximum is 2048 bytes.

 

 

 

Side note: Start witht the code I just posted here - so I know where we're at when things go sideways 😉 

Not to motivate you to paste changes in the sketch, just trying to explain why you got an error:
The error you mentioned (setpixel was not declared in this scope) means that the function setPixel wasn't defined in your sketch.
In my sketch I dropped that function, since it was only needed at the time to keep things compatible with NeoPixel - which we do not use.
So removing that is more efficient.

The setPixel code: 

setPixel(i - j, red, green, blue);

should become:

leds[i-j] = CRGB(red, green, blue);

 


ReplyQuote
 Kip
(@kip)
Active Member
Joined: 2 years ago
Posts: 11
Topic starter  

Thanks for your patience, Hans! 

 So I ran the meteorrain-with-sparkles.ino  and it compiles and runs the regular MeteorRain pattern without the Twinkles pattern. What I notice is missing in this code is the changes you mention for

void drawTwinkles( CRGBSet& L, int maxLeds)
{
  // "PRNG16" is the pseudorandom number generator
  // It MUST be reset to the same starting value each time
  // this function is called, so that the sequence of 'random'
  // numbers that it generates is (paradoxically) stable.
  uint16_t PRNG16 = 11337;
  
  uint32_t clock32 = millis();

  // Set up the background color, "bg".
  // if AUTO_SELECT_BACKGROUND_COLOR == 1, and the first two colors of
  // the current palette are identical, then a deeply faded version of
  // that color is used for the background color
  CRGB bg;
  if( (AUTO_SELECT_BACKGROUND_COLOR == 1) &&
      (gCurrentPalette[0] == gCurrentPalette[1] )) {
    bg = gCurrentPalette[0];
    uint8_t bglight = bg.getAverageLight();
    if( bglight > 64) {
      bg.nscale8_video( 16); // very bright, so scale to 1/16th
    } else if( bglight > 16) {
      bg.nscale8_video( 64); // not that bright, so scale to 1/4th
    } else {
      bg.nscale8_video( 86); // dim, scale to 1/3rd.
    }
  } else {
    bg = gBackgroundColor; // just use the explicitly defined background color
  }

  uint8_t backgroundBrightness = bg.getAverageLight();
  
  for(int i; i<maxLeds; i++) {     // <-- change this loop
     PRNG16 = (uint16_t)(PRNG16 * 2053) + 1384; // next 'random' number
    uint16_t myclockoffset16= PRNG16; // use that number as clock offset
    PRNG16 = (uint16_t)(PRNG16 * 2053) + 1384; // next 'random' number
    // use that number as clock speed adjustment factor (in 8ths, from 8/8ths to 23/8ths)
    uint8_t myspeedmultiplierQ5_3 =  ((((PRNG16 & 0xFF)>>4) + (PRNG16 & 0x0F)) & 0x0F) + 0x08;
    uint32_t myclock30 = (uint32_t)((clock32 * myspeedmultiplierQ5_3) >> 3) + myclockoffset16;
    uint8_t  myunique8 = PRNG16 >> 8; // get 'salt' value for this pixel

    // We now have the adjusted 'clock' for this pixel, now we call
    // the function that computes what color the pixel should be based
    // on the "brightness = f( time )" idea.
    CRGB c = computeOneTwinkle( myclock30, myunique8);

    uint8_t cbright = c.getAverageLight();
    int16_t deltabright = cbright - backgroundBrightness;
    if( deltabright >= 32 || (!bg)) {
      // If the new pixel is significantly brighter than the background color, 
      // use the new color.
      leds[i[ = c;  // <-- change this
    } else if( deltabright > 0 ) {
      // If the new pixel is just slightly brighter than the background color,
      // mix a blend of the new color and the background color
      leds[i[ = blend( bg, c, deltabright * 8);// <-- change this
    } else { 
      // if the new pixel is not at all brighter than the background color,
      // just use the background color.
      leds[i[ = bg;// <-- change this
    }
  }
}

 

and these

 // draw twinkles up to led "i" (=tail)
    if( (i-meteorSize < NUM_LEDS) && ( i-meteorSize>=0) ) {
      drawTwinkles(leds, i-meteorSize);
    }

 

When I add these sections and try to compile I get the error message:

// draw twinkles up to led "i" (=tail)
if( (i-meteorSize < NUM_LEDS) && ( i-meteorSize>=0) ) {
drawTwinkles(leds, i-meteorSize);
}

invalid initialization of reference of type 'CRGBSet& {aka CPixelView<CRGB>&}' from expression of type 'CRGB [300]'

I hope that's clear enough to understand. I'll share the full sketch of what I'm trying to run in a new post.


ReplyQuote
 Kip
(@kip)
Active Member
Joined: 2 years ago
Posts: 11
Topic starter  
#include "FastLED.h"

#define NUM_LEDS 300
CRGB leds[NUM_LEDS];
#define DATA_PIN 9
//CRGBArray<NUM_LEDS> leds;

// Overall twinkle speed.
// 0 (VERY slow) to 8 (VERY fast).  
// 4, 5, and 6 are recommended, default is 4.
#define TWINKLE_SPEED 7

// Overall twinkle density.
// 0 (NONE lit) to 8 (ALL lit at once).  
// Default is 5.
#define TWINKLE_DENSITY 6

// How often to change color palettes.
#define SECONDS_PER_PALETTE  10
// Also: toward the bottom of the file is an array 
// called "ActivePaletteList" which controls which color
// palettes are used; you can add or remove color palettes
// from there freely.

// Background color for 'unlit' pixels
// Can be set to CRGB::Black if desired.
CRGB gBackgroundColor = CRGB::Black; 
// Example of dim incandescent fairy light background color
// CRGB gBackgroundColor = CRGB(CRGB::FairyLight).nscale8_video(16);

// If AUTO_SELECT_BACKGROUND_COLOR is set to 1,
// then for any palette where the first two entries 
// are the same, a dimmed version of that color will
// automatically be used as the background color.
#define AUTO_SELECT_BACKGROUND_COLOR 0

// If COOL_LIKE_INCANDESCENT is set to 1, colors will 
// fade out slighted 'reddened', similar to how
// incandescent bulbs change color as they get dim down.
#define COOL_LIKE_INCANDESCENT 1


CRGBPalette16 gCurrentPalette;
CRGBPalette16 gTargetPalette;

void setup() {
  delay( 3000 ); //safety startup delay
//  FastLED.setMaxPowerInVoltsAndMilliamps( VOLTS, MAX_MA);
  //FastLED.addLeds<LED_TYPE,DATA_PIN,COLOR_ORDER>(leds, NUM_LEDS)
   // .setCorrection(TypicalLEDStrip);
FastLED.addLeds<WS2811, DATA_PIN, GRB>(leds, NUM_LEDS).setCorrection( TypicalLEDStrip );

  chooseNextColorPalette(gTargetPalette);
}


void loop()
{
  EVERY_N_SECONDS( SECONDS_PER_PALETTE ) { 
    chooseNextColorPalette( gTargetPalette ); 
  }
  
  EVERY_N_MILLISECONDS( 10 ) {
    nblendPaletteTowardPalette( gCurrentPalette, gTargetPalette, 12);
  }
    
  meteorRain(250, 60, 0, 5, 60, true, 0);
   //drawTwinkles( leds);
  // FastLED.show();
}

//Starts at lowest number LED and goes to highest
void meteorRain(byte red, byte green, byte blue, byte meteorSize, byte meteorTrailDecay, boolean meteorRandomDecay, int SpeedDelay) {  
  fill_solid( leds, NUM_LEDS, gBackgroundColor );
 
  for(int i = 0; i < NUM_LEDS; i++) {
   
    // fade brightness all LEDs one step
    for(int j=0; j<NUM_LEDS; j++) {
      if( (!meteorRandomDecay) || (random(10)>5) ) {
        leds[j].fadeToBlackBy( meteorTrailDecay );        
      }
    }
   
    // draw meteor
    for(int j = 0; j < meteorSize; j++) {
      if( ( i-j <NUM_LEDS) && (i-j>=0) ) {
        leds[i-j] = CRGB(red, green, blue);
      }
    }

    // draw twinkles up to led "i" (=tail)
    if( (i-meteorSize < NUM_LEDS) && ( i-meteorSize>=0) ) {
      drawTwinkles(leds, i-meteorSize);
    }

    FastLED.show();
    delay(SpeedDelay);
  }

}


//  This function loops over each pixel, calculates the 
//  adjusted 'clock' that this pixel should use, and calls 
//  "CalculateOneTwinkle" on each pixel.  It then displays
//  either the twinkle color of the background color, 
//  whichever is brighter.

void drawTwinkles( CRGBSet& L, int maxLEDS)
{
  // "PRNG16" is the pseudorandom number generator
  // It MUST be reset to the same starting value each time
  // this function is called, so that the sequence of 'random'
  // numbers that it generates is (paradoxically) stable.
  uint16_t PRNG16 = 11337;
  
  uint32_t clock32 = millis();

  // Set up the background color, "bg".
  // if AUTO_SELECT_BACKGROUND_COLOR == 1, and the first two colors of
  // the current palette are identical, then a deeply faded version of
  // that color is used for the background color
  CRGB bg;
  if( (AUTO_SELECT_BACKGROUND_COLOR == 1) &&
      (gCurrentPalette[0] == gCurrentPalette[1] )) {
    bg = gCurrentPalette[0];
    uint8_t bglight = bg.getAverageLight();
    if( bglight > 64) {
      bg.nscale8_video( 16); // very bright, so scale to 1/16th
    } else if( bglight > 16) {
      bg.nscale8_video( 64); // not that bright, so scale to 1/4th
    } else {
      bg.nscale8_video( 86); // dim, scale to 1/3rd.
    }
  } else {
    bg = gBackgroundColor; // just use the explicitly defined background color
  }

  uint8_t backgroundBrightness = bg.getAverageLight();
  
  for(int i; i<maxLeds; i++) {     // <-- change this loop
     PRNG16 = (uint16_t)(PRNG16 * 2053) + 1384; // next 'random' number
    uint16_t myclockoffset16= PRNG16; // use that number as clock offset
    PRNG16 = (uint16_t)(PRNG16 * 2053) + 1384; // next 'random' number
    // use that number as clock speed adjustment factor (in 8ths, from 8/8ths to 23/8ths)
    uint8_t myspeedmultiplierQ5_3 =  ((((PRNG16 & 0xFF)>>4) + (PRNG16 & 0x0F)) & 0x0F) + 0x08;
    uint32_t myclock30 = (uint32_t)((clock32 * myspeedmultiplierQ5_3) >> 3) + myclockoffset16;
    uint8_t  myunique8 = PRNG16 >> 8; // get 'salt' value for this pixel

    // We now have the adjusted 'clock' for this pixel, now we call
    // the function that computes what color the pixel should be based
    // on the "brightness = f( time )" idea.
    CRGB c = computeOneTwinkle( myclock30, myunique8);

    uint8_t cbright = c.getAverageLight();
    int16_t deltabright = cbright - backgroundBrightness;
    if( deltabright >= 32 || (!bg)) {
      // If the new pixel is significantly brighter than the background color, 
      // use the new color.
      leds[i[ = c;  // <-- change this
    } else if( deltabright > 0 ) {
      // If the new pixel is just slightly brighter than the background color,
      // mix a blend of the new color and the background color
      leds[i[ = blend( bg, c, deltabright * 8);// <-- change this
    } else { 
      // if the new pixel is not at all brighter than the background color,
      // just use the background color.
      leds[i[ = bg;// <-- change this
    }
  }
}


//  This function takes a time in pseudo-milliseconds,
//  figures out brightness = f( time ), and also hue = f( time )
//  The 'low digits' of the millisecond time are used as 
//  input to the brightness wave function.  
//  The 'high digits' are used to select a color, so that the color
//  does not change over the course of the fade-in, fade-out
//  of one cycle of the brightness wave function.
//  The 'high digits' are also used to determine whether this pixel
//  should light at all during this cycle, based on the TWINKLE_DENSITY.
CRGB computeOneTwinkle( uint32_t ms, uint8_t salt)
{
  uint16_t ticks = ms >> (8-TWINKLE_SPEED);
  uint8_t fastcycle8 = ticks;
  uint16_t slowcycle16 = (ticks >> 8) + salt;
  slowcycle16 += sin8( slowcycle16);
  slowcycle16 =  (slowcycle16 * 2053) + 1384;
  uint8_t slowcycle8 = (slowcycle16 & 0xFF) + (slowcycle16 >> 8);
  
  uint8_t bright = 0;
  if( ((slowcycle8 & 0x0E)/2) < TWINKLE_DENSITY) {
    bright = attackDecayWave8( fastcycle8);
  }

  uint8_t hue = slowcycle8 - salt;
  CRGB c;
  if( bright > 0) {
    c = ColorFromPalette( gCurrentPalette, hue, bright, NOBLEND);
    if( COOL_LIKE_INCANDESCENT == 1 ) {
      coolLikeIncandescent( c, fastcycle8);
    }
  } else {
    c = CRGB::Black;
  }
  return c;
}

// This function is like 'triwave8', which produces a 
// symmetrical up-and-down triangle sawtooth waveform, except that this
// function produces a triangle wave with a faster attack and a slower decay:
//
//     / \ 
//    /     \ 
//   /         \ 
//  /             \ 
//

uint8_t attackDecayWave8( uint8_t i)
{
  if( i < 86) {
    return i * 3;
  } else {
    i -= 86;
    return 255 - (i + (i/2));
  }
}

// This function takes a pixel, and if its in the 'fading down'
// part of the cycle, it adjusts the color a little bit like the 
// way that incandescent bulbs fade toward 'red' as they dim.
void coolLikeIncandescent( CRGB& c, uint8_t phase)
{
  if( phase < 128) return;

  uint8_t cooling = (phase - 128) >> 4;
  c.g = qsub8( c.g, cooling);
  c.b = qsub8( c.b, cooling * 2);
}

// A mostly red palette with green accents and white trim.
// "CRGB::Gray" is used as white to keep the brightness more uniform.
const TProgmemRGBPalette16 RedOrangeWhite_p FL_PROGMEM =
{  CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, 
   CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, 
   CRGB::Red, CRGB::Red, CRGB::Yellow, CRGB::Grey, 
   CRGB::Orange, CRGB::Orange, CRGB::Orange, CRGB::Orange };


// Add or remove palette names from this list to control which color
// palettes are used, and in what order.
const TProgmemRGBPalette16* ActivePaletteList[] = {
  &RedOrangeWhite_p,
 
};


// Advance to the next color palette in the list (above).
void chooseNextColorPalette( CRGBPalette16& pal)
{
  const uint8_t numberOfPalettes = sizeof(ActivePaletteList) / sizeof(ActivePaletteList[0]);
  static uint8_t whichPalette = -1; 
  whichPalette = addmod8( whichPalette, 1, numberOfPalettes);

  pal = *(ActivePaletteList[whichPalette]);
  };

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